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法兰克富汇报:表明真相的时刻

法兰克富汇报:表明真相的时刻
   文章摘要: 历史上我们毁坏了他们的寺院和造像,这是基本的事实。现在他们开始破坏房屋,攻击军民。不禁要问他们的仇恨从何而来?还是我们想要一个完全忽视他们的权利,并声称一切正常的社会?在一个民主社会,不同群体的权利和特征都应该得到尊重。

   作者 : 法兰克富汇报,
   發表時間:8/21/2008
   法兰克富汇报 2008 年 3 月 31 日
   Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung, March 31, 2008.
   表明真相的时刻
   Time to reveal the truth
   艾未未,您对过去几周在西藏所发生的事情和西方的反响如何看待?
   Ai Weiwei, what is your view of the recent unrest in Tibet over the past few weeks and the reaction of the western world?
   作为一名观察者,我认为,在西方和中国,双方呈现的信息在某种程度上都有错误。对于这次暴乱的起因没有深度的报道。除了互相指责以外,双方没有实质性地沟通。很遗憾,回顾有关我们的历史,很显著的一个特点是缺乏公开的讨论。我们生活在一个意识形态受严格控制的社会,尤其是牵涉到少数民族的问题。如果占据多数的汉人把少数民族当作被解放的奴隶来看的话,解决这个问题是没有希望的。现实情况要复杂得多。他们有着自己的宗教,自己的文化发展轨迹,有自己的思维方式。西藏人现在被简单地视做触犯法律的人来咒骂,我不认为这样能解决问题。这样只会加重汉人和少数民族之间的仇恨,深化他们之间的分歧。
   As an observer, I think that the information presented both in the West and in China was to a certain degree incorrect. There was no in-depth reporting on the reasons behind the violence, and aside from mutual criticisms, neither side had any substantive communication with the other. Regrettably, a prominent feature when looking back on our history is the lack of public debate. We live in a society where ideology is severely controlled, especially when it touches upon the issues of ethnic minorities. If the majority of occupying Han treat the ethnic minorities as liberated serfs, there's no hope of resolving the issue. The reality of the situation is extremely complex. They have their own religion, their own path of cultural development and their own ways of thinking. The Tibetan people are now chided for being lawbreakers, but I don't think this can solve the problem. This is only going to intensify the hatred between the Han and ethnic peoples, and deepen the differences between them.
   如何才能消除分歧呢?
   How can these differences be eliminated?
   最主要的是要真正地尊重少数民族,并承认对他们过去所犯下的过失。这次动乱无论如何,至少说明少数民族政策的失败。我们未能真正理解他们的宗教和生活方式。历史上我们毁坏了他们的寺院和造像,这是基本的事实。现在他们开始破坏房屋,攻击军民。不禁要问他们的仇恨从何而来?还是我们想要一个完全忽视他们的权利,并声称一切正常的社会?在一个民主社会,不同群体的权利和特征都应该得到尊重。这些问题理应解决。如果解决不了,就是政策的失败。必须寻求对话。仅仅以分裂祖国的罪名来指控他们,是不可行的。我们要建立一个由不同族群组成,持不同语言,有着不同信仰、生活方式和思维方式的社会,这就需要尊重、宽容、磋商和对话。
   Most important is to truly respect ethnic minorities, and to admit all of the mistakes perpetrated against them in the past. In all events, this latest unrest [in Tibet] at the very least speaks to the failure of ethnic minority policies. We have never fully understood their religion and their lifestyle. Historically, we destroyed their monasteries and statues - that's a simple fact. Now they have started destroying property and they have attacked military personnel. We are compelled to ask, where did this hatred come from? Do we really want the kind of society where we completely ignore their rights but then say everything is normal? In a democratic society, the rights and characteristics of different groups are respected. These issues have to be solved. If they cannot be solved then it's a failure of policy. A dialog must be sought. To simply accuse them of the crime of splittism is not feasible. We need to establish a society in which different ethnic groups, people with different languages, different religions, lifestyle and different ways of thinking can coexist. And this requires respect, tolerance, consultation and dialog.
   为什么您认为,西方也表现不妥呢?
   Why, do you think, has the western world been disapproving?
   如果人们带着一定的成见的话,一叶障目,就会对外界视而不见。哪里有掩饰,哪里就会有猜测和推断。我原则上认为,人们之间的误解和怨恨,国与国之间,不同意识形态之间,西方与东方,藏人与汉人之间的误解和怨恨,在很大程度上归结于遮遮掩掩、缺乏透明度和获取信息的渠道。这给社会带来很大的成本。在整个中国,这方面已经开始有所转变,但是某些领域还是由旧的结构和思维所主导。我认为,西藏问题在这方面尤其特殊。由于缺乏事实或者人为的遮掩真相,造成人们思考明辩的障碍。这是最本质的东西,但听起来有点幼稚。人们试图获取事实与经验的方式和方法,标志了不同社会的根本区别。在共产主义的开始阶段,人们尝试通过斗争来获取绝对真理。当人们争取真理的同时,对需要掌握真理的普通民众却不信任。让公众了解真相是很危险的。这是一种陈旧的思维,它关系到人们如何掌控权力。我经常反问,为什么不能拥有一个没有媒体审查和控制的社会?我们究竟要掩饰什么?什么样的事实那么危险?显然,如果多数人仅能获取片面的信息,这样会更加容易控制。信息即是权力。但是在人们做出谁对谁错的判断之前,必须要了解所有的真相。这历来都是必须的。我们从来没有这样的权利,现在是我们具有这样的权利的时候了。否则当人们回顾历史,整个世界都会将责任推卸在其身上,没有做什么可耻的事情,为什么要遮掩?我总体上认为,媒体并没有夸大其词。如果对于此没有丝毫报道,没有人观察究竟发生了什么,那才真正是破坏性的。很多中国人现在诅咒西方。这是来自于长期的宣传的结果,即西方是敌人,欺诈中国的敌人。这是偏见的后果。
   If people carry preconceptions with them, they wont see the outside world clearly - "A single leaf before ones eye/ Obscures a view of all Mount Tai." Wherever there are cover-ups, there are also suspicions and speculation. I fundamentally believe that misunderstandings and resentment between people and between nations, and differences between ideologies and between east and west, and that the misunderstandings and resentment between Han and Tibetan people can to a large degree be traced back to the suppression of information, and a lack of transparency and channels for gathering information. This has been at great cost to society. Throughout China there have been some changes on this, but there are still areas which are led by these old structures and thinking. And in this regard, I think the Tibet issue is particularly special. Due a lack of facts and a deliberate suppression of the truth, people's understanding and powers of deduction have been impeded. It sounds a little naïve, but this is incredibly basic. The ways and means people use to try and acquire facts and experience denote fundamental differences among different societies. In the early stages of Communism, people attempted to acquire the absolute truth by means of struggle. While people were striving for the truth, ordinary people who needed the truth were not trusted with it. It is extremely dangerous to tell the public the truth. This very old way of thinking touches upon how people wield their power. I often ask why can't we have a society with no supervision or control of the media. What are we trying to hide? What kind of facts can be so dangerous? Naturally, if the majority of people can only get one-sided information then they're easier to control. Information is power. But before judgment can be made on who is right and who is wrong, the truth has to be understood. This has always been the way. We've never had this power before, but now is the time for us to have it. Otherwise when history is reviewed the whole world will try and put responsibility elsewhere - if nothing shameful has been done, then why should there be cover-ups? Overall, I think the media did not exaggerate. If there wasn't the slightest reporting of this and there was no one to actually see what was happening, that would have been truly damaging. Many Chinese people are now cursing the west, and this is an outcome of a long period of propaganda where the west is the enemy, the enemy who deceived China. This is an outcome of bias.
   很多中国人感到好奇,为什么这么多西方人对西藏感兴趣。相反是否可以这样问,为什么这么少的中国人关心西藏?
   Many Chinese are curious as to why so many western people are interested in Tibet. And conversely we can also ask: why are so few Chinese people concerned about Tibet?

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