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陈奎德作品选编
·近代宪政的演化(22)十九世纪法国民主道路的曲折历程
·近代宪政的演化(23)日尔曼民族十九世纪的政治发展
·近代宪政的演化(24)其它欧洲国家的民主实验
·近代宪政的演化(25)社会主义思想在19世纪欧洲的兴起
·近代宪政的演化(26)日本的明治维新
·近代宪政的演化(27)中国对西方的初步反应——洋务(自强)运动的背景
·近代宪政的演化(28)中国洋务(自强)运动的失败
·近代宪政的演化(29)中国的改制:戊戌变法的兴起
·近代宪政的演化(30)百日维新及其失败
·近代宪政的演化(31)戊戌失败后的宪政改革--晚清新政
·近代宪政的演化(32)晚清新政的内容
·近代宪政的演化(33)中国的保路运动与武昌起义
·近代宪政的演化(34)民国初年民主宪政的尝试
·近代宪政的演化(35)袁世凯称帝及其失败
·近代宪政的演化(36)民初中国社会发展
·近代宪政的演化(37)马克思主义与俄国革命
·近代宪政的演化(38)中国的五四新文化运动
·近代宪政的演化(39)五四与中国现代民族主义的兴起
·近代宪政的演化(40)中国国民革命与南京政府
·近代宪政的演化(41)五四之后中国关于民主与独裁的辩论
·近代宪政的演化(42)法西斯主义产生的背景
·近代宪政的演化(43)希特勒与德国纳粹的兴起
·近代宪政的演化(44)日本侵华战争
·近代宪政的演化(45)民主对法西斯的世界大战
·近代宪政的演化(46)战后秩序和冷战的肇始
·近代宪政的演化(47)二战后中国的宪政实验
·近代宪政的演化(48)国共谈判破裂与中国内战爆发
·近代宪政的演化(49)战后日本的民主建设
·近代宪政的演化(50)战后德国重建、
·近代宪政的演化(51)柏林危机(1948-1949)
·近代宪政的演化(52)战后中国内战
·近代宪政的演化(53)朝鲜战争
·近代宪政的演化(54)中国“党-国”体制的形成
·近代宪政的演化(55)中国大陆的土地改革
·近代宪政的演化(56)中共的镇反运动
·近代宪政的演化(57)三反五反运动在中国
·近代宪政的演化(58)共产党在中国知识界的洗脑运动
·近代宪政的演化(59)赫鲁晓夫的非斯大林化运动
·近代宪政的演化(60)1956年匈牙利革命
·近代宪政的演化(61)中共的反右派运动
·近代宪政的演化(62)毛的乌托邦及其失败
·近代宪政的演化(63)中共文化大革命的开始
·近代宪政的演化(64)文化大革命的进程
近代宪政的演化(65)-(105)
·近代宪政的演化(65)1976年「四.五」天安门运动与文革结束
·近代宪政的演化(66)二十世纪六十年代后非社会主义国家的自由民主趋势
·近代宪政的演化(67)布拉格之春——社会主义国家的自由民主尝试
·近代宪政的演化(68)毛时代的结束与中国民主浪潮的兴起
·近代宪政的演化(69)波兰的团结工会运动
·近代宪政的演化(70)八十年代苏联的变迁
·近代宪政的演化(71)台湾的宁静革命
·近代宪政的演化(72)当代菲律宾的民主转型
·近代宪政的演化(73)南韩转向民主
·近代宪政的演化(74)中国大陆在八十年代的经济改革
·近代宪政的演化(75)中国八十年代的政治风云
·近代宪政的演化(76)中国八十年代的社会和文化变迁
·近代宪政的演化(77)一九八九年中国天安门事变
·近代宪政的演化(78)柏林墙的倒塌
·近代宪政的演化(79) 波、匈、捷的民主转型
·近代宪政的演化(80)罗马尼亚的民主革命
·近代宪政的演化(81)保加利亚、南斯拉夫的民主转型
·近代宪政的演化(82)风雨飘摇:戈尔巴乔夫后期的苏联
·近代宪政的演化(83)苏联解体,冷战结束
·近代宪政的演化(84)冷战后东欧的艰难转型
·近代宪政的演化(85)中共抗拒世界潮流
·近代宪政的演化(86)苏俄:艰难的转型
·近代宪政的演化(87)中共乞灵于民族主义
·近代宪政的演化(88)亚洲金融风暴与“亚洲价值论”的破产
·近代宪政的演化(89)1998:“北京小阳春”
·近代宪政的演化(90)金融危机的政治后果—— 印尼的民主化
·近代宪政的演化(91)人权高于主权——科索沃战争缔造新秩序
·近代宪政的演化(92)新千禧年十字路口的中国
·近代宪政的演化(93)世纪之交中国自由派与新左派之争(1)
·近代宪政的演化(94)世纪之交中国自由派与新左派之争(2)
·近代宪政的演化(95)世纪之交中国自由派与新左派之争(3)
·近代宪政的演化(96)“9.11”事件:历史的转折点
·近代宪政的演化(97)美国新保守主义的兴起(1)
·近代宪政的演化(98)新保守主义的兴起(2):伊拉克战争
·近代宪政的演化(99)美国新保守主义与共产中国(1)
·近代宪政的演化(100)美国新保守主义与共产中国(2)
·近代宪政的演化(101)左翼极权滑向右翼纳粹
·近代宪政的演化(102)胡温政权向毛主义摆动
· 近代宪政的演化(103)伊拉克战后民主进程
·近代宪政的演化(104)赵紫阳逝世与中国政局
·近代宪政的演化(105)近代宪政的演化结束语
《海耶克》
·《海耶克》目次
·《海耶克》 序
·第一章导言:二十世纪的先知
·第二章风华时代:维也纳—纽约—伦敦
·第三章风雨交加:《通向奴役的道路》①
·第四章赴美前後
·第五章《自由宪章》和《法律、立法与自由》
·第六章晚年总结:《致命的自负——社会主义的谬误》⑴
·第七章保守主义还是自由主义?
·海耶克生平年表
·海耶克的论著
·参考文献
陈奎德部分中文作品
·陈奎德部份文章目录
·2003回眸:民权年
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“国安部”清场——奥运综合症(二)

有一个词,叫“清场”。当中国处于某些特殊历史时刻,它会倏然而出。

   1976年四月五日深夜,在聚集大量市民及诗歌花圈的天安门广场,灯光骤灭,官方宣布清场:一万多民兵、工人纠察队、五营卫戍部队、三千公安人员,狼突而出,民众被打、被驱、被捕。

   1989年六月四日淩晨四时,天安门广场灯光熄灭,清场降临:此前的华洋一体众声喧哗,突然归于死的寂静。围绕清场前后,铁甲怪兽现身千年古城,横冲直撞,成百上千的学生与市民倒在血泊之中。

   2008年3月14日, 西藏拉萨,数万军警突击清场,游行示威的藏族喇嘛,遭到镇压与搜捕;外国新闻记者,遭到骚扰和驱逐。

   如今,2008奥运前夕,清场,再次出现了。它以更大规模,笼罩北京全城。主导者是国安部和武警。“以超常措施,决胜奥运安保”这是北京大街的横幅。这使人想到了“超限战”这本恶名昭著的书。一场体育盛典,一次嘉华年会,居然令北京与1989年一样,进入戒严状态,直追战时情势。

   看来,共产党人果然是“特殊材料”做成的,他们的行事方式与正常人正常政府截然相反。我们注意到,面临大灾巨难,中共“把丧事办成喜事”;而面对喜事盛会,中共又“把喜事办成丧事”,这两种中共传统,就在2008的今年,已经先后呈现。“把丧事办成喜事”的典型,是汶川大地震;“把喜事办成丧事”的典型,则是北京奥运。

   人们看到,最近,“风声鹤唳、草木皆兵”,是国际社会形容北京奥运最多的一个词。当局为了确保奥运,动用11个师的武警,6万多北京警察,犹嫌不够,又从外省调京数万军警,已建立三级安保指挥体系。他们制定了周密的防范计划和预案,实施了“平安奥运行动”,共分三阶段,1-5月为治理整顿阶段。6-7月是巩固防范阶段,7-8月奥运会举办期间,要严防死守保奥运。连文字,都是使用战争语言。

   从年初开始,当局全城搜捕与驱赶身无片瓦的上访人员、外来民工,人数多达百万。为达目的,当局甚至用停电停水之残酷手段,扫荡各类地下室和简易棚户。同时,逮捕或放逐或限制异议人士、基督教人士、法轮功修炼者。如逮捕胡嘉,永久性放逐异议人士李剑虹出境,再次囚禁杜导彬,限制温克坚和赵达功出境……等等。

   当局如临大敌,如遇鏖战。在北京城内,设置"三道治安防线",层层把关。7月20日起,北京全面管制。车辆依车牌尾数分单双号行使、奥运专用车道、混凝土等工程暂停施工,在奥运开幕当晚禁止北京地区的飞机起降,又在北京、天津、山东、上海等地,实施天上"净空";机场实施"两次安检";对乘坐车船进入北京的旅客实行购票实名制,警察随意登车,对进京车辆和人员大规模盘查。国内外非北京籍留京人员必须随身携带至少两种证件等。就连北京周边农村,也进入备战状态,每个村口的路口都安排了一批村民,手臂上挂着治安联防的红袖章,在路口拉起了一根上面挂着彩条的线,随时将一些他们认为可疑的过往的车辆与行人拦截盘查。而与北京相关的电力系统,则配合当地综合治理部门,在每根高压电的架下搭起了临时帐篷,安排了临时床,每天24小时派人值班,保卫电杆。

   如此,当局视民众为寇仇,紧张乖戾,势同水火。管制之严,甚于抗战时的日据区。闲杂人等,概不准入。中共的愿景,就是在京澳期间,市民都蜗居家中,守看电视,大街则空空如也。如此清静江山,无人捣乱,稳定和谐,天下一统,岂不快哉?

   于是,好端端的奥运,搞成如此死气沉沉。偌大京城,鬼城一座,一幅末日景象。难怪京人悲壮地称自己是去“共赴国难”了。 这就是清场,一次最大规模的清场——北京全城清场。

   这不由使人想起1976、1989、2008在北京与拉萨的清场。同样是汹汹公众聚集,同样是全球媒体聚焦,最后,同样是血迹斑斑。

   于是,我们看到了一个共产党定律: 凡是非官方组织的、群情亢奋的公众浩大集会,尤其倘有国际媒体聚焦,往下的结果不问可知:清场。无论是危机还是盛会,无论是国内示威还是国际大典。

   这就是共产党的“清场定律”。当然,清场不是没有前奏的,正如我们在上篇“真理部出场”所提到的,“真理部(中宣部)”的号角,就是其前奏。无论1976、1989的北京,还是2008拉萨的清场,都是如此。出场与清场,宣传部和国安部,它们的出现,其先后次序是不会变的。正如蚊子叮人之前总要嗡嗡嗡在耳边盘旋,以论证其“叮人清场”的合理性一样,中共的清场程序是其老规矩,也是不变的。

   在这个意义上,虽然北京已经与日俱进,已气粗到与列强平起平坐,并可主办奥运的份上了,但在骨子里,毛泽东那“(笔枪)两杆子”的遗传基因,却顽强地支配着北京一次又一次清场的行为模式。

State Security Clears the Hall -- The Olympics Syndrome (2)

Chen Kuide

   At certain critical historical junctures, China is prone to a phenomenon known as "clearing the hall."

   Late at night on April 5, 1976, during a large gathering of Beijing residents laying wreaths at Tiananmen Square for deceased Premier Zhou Enlai, the authorities suddenly switched on the floodlights and announced a clearing of the area. More than 10,000 police and troops rushed in and began beating, driving out and detaining citizens.

   A similar sequence of events transpired at Tiananmen Square in the early hours of June 4, 1989, with hundreds of students and citizens falling before tanks and troops.

   On March 14, 2008, tens of thousands of police and soldiers moved in on protesters in Lhasa, beating and detaining protesting citizens and lamas, and harassing and driving out foreign journalists.

   Now, on the eve of the Olympics, a similar clearing of the hall is taking place on an even larger scale as the entire city of Beijing is relieved of its undesirables. The clearance this time is being driven by the State Security Bureau and the People's Armed Police. Beijing's streets are festooned with banners proclaiming, "Employ extraordinary measures to ensure the security of the Olympics." The slogan brings to mind the notorious book "Unrestricted Warfare," published by two PLA colonels in 1999. A grand sports occasion is leading to a period of martial law and wartime atmosphere similar to that experienced in Beijing in 1989.

   It looks as if the Chinese Communist Party members are made of "special stuff" that leads them to do things in just the opposite way to normal people. We notice that 2008 has presented the Chinese government with the opportunity to demonstrate its special talent for "turning mourning into celebration" and "turning joyous occasions into times of mourning," first with the Wenchuan earthquake and now with the Olympics.

   The international community has taken to describing the atmosphere preceding the Beijing Olympics with the terms "jitters and qualms." In order to ensure a safe and stable Olympics, the authorities have deployed 11 regiments of People's Armed Police, more than 60,000 Beijing police officers, and on concerns that even these forces might prove inadequate, tens of thousands more police officers and soldiers from outside provinces, under three levels of command. They have formulated detailed plans and preparations for a "peaceful Olympics operation" in three stages. The first stage, from January to May, was designated for improvement and rectification. June and July make up the consolidation and prevention stage, and the third stage from July to August, while the Olympics are actually ongoing, is dedicated to strict precautions and unyielding defense. Even the terms used suggest the language of war.

   Since the beginning of the year, the authorities have been rounding up and expelling hundreds of thousands of penniless petitioners and migrant workers. They have used coercive methods such as cutting off water and electricity and even physical abuse to accomplish their goal, and have destroyed all kinds of underground structures and shacks. At the same time, they have detained, banished or controlled dissidents, Christians and Falun Gong practitioners. Notable examples include the imprisonment of Hu Jia, the permanent expulsion of Li Jianhong, taking Du Daobin back into custody, restricting Wen Kejian and deporting Zhao Dagong.

   The authorities act as if confronting a mortal enemy in fierce battle. Three "lines of defense" have been erected within Beijing, and the city has been placed under full surveillance since July 20. Other measures include restricting operation of motor vehicles with odd and even license numbers on alternate days, setting up special Olympics motorways, halting operation of cement work and other engineering projects, banning flights in and out of Beijing during the Olympics opening ceremony, implementing "blue sky" days in Beijing, Tianjin, Shandong and Shanghai, double security checks at the airports, checking names of ticketed passengers on vehicles and vessels entering Beijing, police vehicular spot checks, and large-scale interrogation and examination of passengers and staff of vehicles entering Beijing. Non-Beijing residents are obliged to carry at least two forms of identification on their persons at all times. Even on the outskirts of Beijing, teams of villagers wearing red security armbands are stationed at the entrance to each village, with ropes drawn across the road to stop vehicles and pedestrians for questioning before admittance. Beijing's electrical power suppliers have stationed personnel on 24-hour watch beneath each high-voltage electrical tower to ensure there is no interruption of the power supply.

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