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·郭国汀介绍为法轮功学员打官司的曲折经历
·质疑张千帆教授对法轮功的评价 郭国汀
·宣誓证词Affidavit
·中共一贯谎言连篇是个地道的骗子党!
·中共下达密文奥运成迫害最大借口
·中国著名人权律师从为法轮功辩护看中共践踏法律(图)
·郭国汀律师批评中共奧運前加劇迫害法輪功
·郭国汀律师呼吁台湾政府予吴亚林政治庇护
·郭国汀律师称中共持续非法迫害法轮功及其辩护律师
·答Gavin0919郭国汀是法轮功走狗之指控
***(3)郭国汀为法轮功辩护的专访
·专访郭国汀律师(上) :为法轮功辩护
·专访郭国汀律师(下) :回首不言悔
·RFA:郭国汀介绍为法轮功学员打官司的曲折经历
·自由亞洲電台专访郭國汀谈為法輪功學員打官司
·希望之声郭国汀专访:对法轮功学员的劳教、判刑是非法行为
***(三)郭国汀律师为郑恩宠抗辩
·我为郑恩宠律师抗辩的前前后后
·为郑恩宠案翟明磊等中国新闻记者六君子的声明
·敬请关注郑恩宠律师所谓"非法获取国家秘密罪"一案
·历史将证明郑恩宠律师无罪/郭国汀
·郑恩宠案二审辩护词及网友评论/郭国汀
·关于会见在押的郑恩宠的第二次申请函
·郑恩宠律师“为境外非法提供国家秘密罪”一审判决书
·上海市高级法院郑恩宠案刑事裁定书
·郑恩宠冤案再审案至全国律协诸位会长之公开函/郭国汀
·中国最需要像郑恩宠这样的律师
·诽谤郑恩宠律师的中共党奴及特务名录
·再谈郑恩宠案 郭国汀倡律师网上辩护
·我为郑恩宠辩护的前前后后 郭国汀
·上海普通市民感受的郑恩宠大律师
·关于郑恩宠案我的声明
·我为郑恩宠律师辩护
·一切源于郑恩宠案,可敬的国安兄弟请自重!
·郑恩宠聘请辩护人的真相
·郑恩宠聘请辩护律师真相之二
·真为这位北京律师脸红!
·张思之大律师冒着酷暑赴看守所会见郑恩宠
·上海监狱当局婉拒郑恩宠的辩护律师会见
·关于会见在押的郑恩宠的第二次申请函
·揭开“时代精英“画皮
·答时代精英,
·再答时代精英教导
·向张思之律师,郑恩宠律师学习,致敬!
·南郭:仗义执言的律师还是没良心的律师
·驳“文律”兄郑案高论/南郭
·中国最需要像郑恩宠这样的律师
·凡跟郭国汀贴者一律入选黑名单
·批驳李洪东之首恶律师说!
·历史岂容任意伪造!
·惊闻郑恩宠律师夫人蒋美丽被拘捕!
·郑恩宠案二审会维持原判,辩护律师难辞其咎。
·求名求利的律师代表
·答L君之三项基本原则
·郑恩宠案网友评论
·网友支持或反对郑恩宠的评论
·支持或反对郑恩宠的网友评论之二
·中国律师声援支持郑恩宠
·吴国策律师:“求名求利的律师代表——某律师的心里”系他人盗名发表的声明
·中国律师声援支持郑恩宠律师
·网警\网友\特务与郑恩宠案
·郑恩宠律师的最后一篇代理词
·关于记者杨金志、陈斌严重侵犯郑恩宠律师名誉权的律师函
·郭国汀律师如果你还是个真正的男人的话,请你勇于承担败诉的责任。
·郑恩宠案上海当局特务什么下流无耻的手段皆用
·谋害郑恩宠的凶手是谁?
·郑恩宠案上海高院驳回上诉后网友们的评论
·请记住一位伟大的律师英雄——郑恩宠/郭国汀
***(四)香港联中公司与厦门国际贸易信托投资公司国际贸易争议再审案
·司法腐败的典型案例
·最高法院无理拖宕九年拒不下判再审案代理词
·反了你!竟敢不尊敬我大法官!
·就十五载官司致最高法院法官的公开函
·中国法官如何让吾尊敬/南郭
·最高法院的院长们为何威胁郭国汀律师?
***(五)涉外亿元合同诈骗案
·涉港“亿元”合同诈骗案之辩护词/郭国汀
·惊心动魄的辩护
·涉外亿元诈骗案致有关负责人的公开函
·致福建省委、省政府各位领导及福州市委、市府各位负责人的公开信
·关于本司与福州市粮油公司贸易纠纷案及因此而被无辜拘留、逮捕者至福州市、福建省、中国政府、公安、检察各部门负责人公开函:
·亿元合同诈骗案至福州市市长函
·亿元合同诈骗案至福州市委书记函
·关于亿元合同诈骗案至福州市委书记的函
·亿元合同诈骗案至中央政法委书记紧急呼吁函
·福州市公安局插手涉港经济纠纷造成海内外不良影响事
·亿元合同诈骗案郭国汀律师与龚雄副市长会谈备忘录
***(59)(五)郭国汀律师名案劲辩
***(1)政治良心案
·力虹(张建红)煽动颠覆国家政权案的咄咄怪事
·郭国汀力虹被中共无罪重判的真实原因
·评论严正责令胡锦涛立即无条件释放朱宇飙律师!
·简析严正学所谓颠覆国家政权案
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论中共专制暴政下的宗教信仰自由(英文)

Freedom of Religion justified from natural law
   
   By Guoting Guo
   
   Throughout history, governments have attempted to control religious organizations and limited religious freedom. However, over the past two hundred years the world has extended religious liberty. What explains this rise in religious freedom? For all human being has the free will and personal spiritual experience, through study we learn that the first nation come true the religious liberty is United States and their fundamental documents drafter was Thomas Jefferson who was mainly influenced by John Locke's theory of natural law. Therefore, I think the main reason for the freedom of religion has developed in the world is the natural law ideology.

   
    I the right of religious liberty is well build in International law
   
   The right to freedom of religion is one of the oldest human rights recognized internationally. The Peace of Westphalia (1648), which accorded international protection to religious groups. The right of religious liberty added dynamism to the Virginia's Bill of Rights of 1776, the Austrian Act of Religious Tolerance of 1781 and the Virginia Statute of Religious Liberty of 1786.[1]The Universal Declaration of Human Rights by the United Nations (UDHR1948) was a fruit of development, which was followed by a series of human rights conventions supported in varying degrees by all countries.[2] all articles are based and developed from the article 18 of the UDHR of 1948, which states:
   
   "Everyone has the right to freedom of… religion; this right includes freedom to change his religion or belief, and freedom, either alone or in community with others and in public or private, to manifest his religion or belief in teaching, practice, worship and observance".
   
   1. Everyone have the right to freedom of religion. This right includes freedom to have or to adopt a religion or belief of his choice, and freedom, either individually or in community with others and in public or private, to manifest his religion or belief, observance, practice, and teaching.
   2. no one shall be subject to coercion, which would impair his freedom to have or to adopt a religion or belief of his choice.
   3. freedom to manifest one's religion or beliefs may be subject only to such limitations as are prescribed by law and are necessary to protect public safety, order, health, or moral or the fundamental rights and freedoms of others.
   
   Therefore, the principle of Freedom of Religion is welled build in the field of international law; almost in all State's law declare that citizens have the right of religious liberty now. However, in practice, in all totalitarian and dictatorship regimes, no such thing as religious liberty, for these regimes all deny the principle of natural law, deny the natural rights and wherever and whenever deny the principle of natural law and natural rights, where and when the religious liberty could not survive.
   
   
   II. Freedom of Religion and natural law
   
   A. national law theory
   
   What is religion? It is impossible to have a universal accepted definition, for different people have various opinions. A apologist for Christianity, Schleiermacher, defined religion in terms of 'the feeling of absolute dependence upon God'; a philosopher, Whitehead, defined religion as ' what the individual does with his solitariness'; a famous religion scholar, Edward Tyler, defined religion as 'belief in spiritual being'; a another religion scholar, James Frazer ,defined religion as 'a propitiation or conciliation of powers superior to man'; a author, Rudolf Otto defined religion as 'a unique, original feeling response…which claims consideration in its own right'; and the well-known psychologist, Freud even described religion as 'a universal obsessional neurosis'; even Marxism and Fascism have been described as 'quasi-religion'.[3] In my opinion, religion is a faith for where we are from and where we are going.
   
   1. nature and religion
   
   Generally speaking, the religious origin of man's consciousness of right and the legal order was or is affirmed through the intermediary of the natural law. In the rationalistic conception, man's consciousness of right and the legal order is not brought into relationship with God[4]. For primitive man nature had a numinous and sacral meaning, they lived in a society whose norms were dictated by nature and for them nature was never merely 'natural'; it is for them always filled with religious meaning. Nature's life of the primitive man had the numinous and the sacred, he tried to integrate his own life into that of nature, the nature and culture have spontaneously a religious meaning, not only birth and death, sexual relations and sickness, but also work, politics, morality, traffic, science, economy-everything has a religious foundation.[5] Thus, religion was born at very beginning with the human being.
   
   2. God and Natural Law
   
   Hammurabi called himself " King of Justice" because he received the legal order of his kingdom from the hands of Shamash. All Chinese ancient emperors declared themselves as the Son of God. Therefore, entire legal order or at least the authority and the power of the rulers receive an absolute and sacred character if they are seen as directly related to God's will.
   
   Spinoza asserted that the power and force through which everything in nature exists and operates is nothing but the power and force of God. God's power is unlimited and therefore God has a right to everything. Since whatever is in nature exists and operates by virtue of God's power and since God's absolute power is God's absolute right, it follows that the right of whatever is in nature is in direct ratio to the power it has to exist and operate. This right of everything that exists in nature is the natural law, and the natural law extends as far as the power of nature and of everything that exists in nature[6].
   
   3. Reason and the natural law.
   
   The natural law derives from a few very general and self-evident principles. Sometimes they even estimated it as superior and better then positive law because it did not come forth from the will of a lawgiver and therefore was valid for all times and places for all human beings. However someone challenged: How would the discursive reason on its own be able to formulate a system of legal norms which in its completeness and its detailed character can be compared with positive law when the creation of a single role of positive law sometimes demands months and even years of strenuous work? How can reason alones be able to excogitate a system of norms valid for all people at all times and all places when it is certain that no two times, no two places and no two people are alike? How can a system of norms be unchangeable if times, places and people change? In the light of the strenuous work jurists must perform in order to precisely take account of the concrete and change times, places and people, the rationalistic view of the natural law presents itself as an intolerable pretension. The rationalistic view of the natural law has disappeared from the scene.[7] Mans natural rights would be determined by the power of his reason. But man does not live according to his reason; he is driven by passions and desires. Because people let themselves be swayed by their passions and desires, they are naturally one another's enemies.[8]
   
   4. Essence and natural law.
   
   The legal order as a whole must have a foundation that cannot have a purely positive-juridical character. Many philosophers have tried to base the positive legal order on the nature of man. In so far as the legal order is based on man's essence, there will be as many different views about the natural law as there are different anthropologies. Even the rationalistic conception of the natural law is based on a view of man. [9]
   
   B. Natural law
   
   Natural law theory is one of the most important theories in the philosophy of Classical Realism. In order to understand the natural law we need discuss more detail some content of the natural law.
   
   1. the definition of the natural law
   
   Natural law is that "unwritten law" that is more or less the same for everyone everywhere (Aristotle). In an another word, natural law is the concept of a body of moral principles that is common to all humankind and recognizable by human reason. It may be defined as "rules of action prescribed by non-human authority which is superior to the state. These rules variously are derived from divine commandment; from the nature of humankind; from abstract Reason; or from long experience of mankind in community". [10]

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