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郭国汀律师专栏
·货物被骗属于货物一切险承保范围
·上海吉龙塑胶制品有限公司诉上海捷士国际货运代理有限公司无单放货争议案
·GENERAL TRADE诉绍兴县进出口公司国际货物买卖合同品质纠纷案析
·货代违约造成贸易合同毁约应向谁索赔损失?
·对一起复杂行政诉讼案的法律思考
·2002年国际船舶保险条款
·Peter . Liu劳动争议初步法律意见/郭国汀
·船舶保险合同(保证条款)争议案析/郭国汀
·自有集装箱被占用案初步法律意见/郭国汀
·马士基集团香港有限公司与中国包装进出口安微公司签发放行提单再审争议案析/郭国汀
·析一起签发放行记名提单再审争议案/郭国汀
·上海亚太国际集装箱储运有限公司诉天津海峡货运有限公司上海分公司海上货物运输合同货物被盗损失代位追偿案析/郭国汀
·海上保险合同争议起诉状/郭国汀
·民事答辩反诉状
·关于应当如何理解《INSTITUTE CARGO CLAUSES (A)》中“一切险”责任范围的咨询复函/郭国汀
·海运运费及代理费问题的解答/郭国汀
·美亚保险公司上海分公司诉BDP亚洲太平洋有限公司海上货运合同货损争议代位追偿案析/郭国汀
·货代违约造成贸易合同无效怎么办?郭国汀
·捷运通有限公司诉东方集团上海市对外贸易有限公司海上货运合同争议案析/郭国汀
·平安保险公司代位追偿案析/郭国汀
·记名提单若干法律问题上海吉龙塑胶制品有限公司诉上海捷士国际货运代理有限公司无单放货争议案析/郭国汀
·乐清外贸公司与长荣航运公司海上货物运输合同争议案初步法律意见书/郭国汀
·新世纪轮船舶保险合同争议上诉代理词
·“富江7号”轮沉船保险合同争议案析/郭国汀
·上海吉龙塑胶制品有限公司诉上海捷士国际货运代理有限公司无单放货争议案析/郭国汀
·马士基集团香港有限公司与中国包装进出口安微公司签发放行提单再审争议案析/郭国汀
·评一起重大涉外海商纠纷案的判决 郭国汀
·请教郭国汀律师有关留置权问题
·新加坡捷富意运通有限公司诉上海中波国际贸易有限公司运费争议案析/郭国汀
·中国海关实际运作的宣誓证言/郭国汀
·亚洲的国际商事仲裁中心及其仲裁制度的特点-颜云青 郭国汀译
·亚洲的国际商事仲裁中心及其仲裁制度的特点-颜云青 郭国汀 译(下)
***郭国汀律师专译著
***(1)《协会保险条款诠释》陈剖建/郭国汀译 郭国汀校
·寄语中国青少年——序《英国保险协会保险条款诠释》
·《英国保险协会保险条款诠释》译后记
·《协会保险条款诠释》陈剖建/郭国汀译
·《协会保险条款诠释》陈剖建/郭国汀译 第二编 海上货物保险格式
·《协会保险条款诠释》陈剖建/郭国汀译 第三编 海上船舶格式保险单
·《协会保险条款诠释》陈剖建/郭国汀译 第四编 对船东的附加保险
·《协会保险条款诠释》陈剖建/郭国汀译 第五编 为各利益方的保险
·《协会保险条款诠释》陈剖建/郭国汀译 第六编 战争和罢工险格式
***(2)英国协会保险货物保险条款英中对译
·1934年1月1日协会更换保险条款/郭国汀译
·1982年1月1日协会货物(A)条款/郭国汀译
·1982年1月1日协会货物保险(B)和(C)条款/郭国汀译
·1982年8月1日协会恶意损害保险条款/郭国汀译
·1983年9月5日协会商品贸易(A)(B)(C)保险条款/郭国汀译
·1984年1月1日协会黄麻保险条款/郭国汀译
·1986年1月1日协会冻肉保险条款/郭国汀译
·1995年11月1日协会船舶战争险和罢工险条款/郭国汀译
·1982年1月1日协会货物罢工险条款/郭国汀译
·1982年1月1日协会货物战争险保险条款/郭国汀译
·1982年10月1日协会煤炭保险条款/郭国汀译
·1983年10月1日和1995年11月1日协会船舶定期保险条款/郭国汀译
·1984年1月1日协会天然橡胶(液态胶乳除外)保险条款/郭国汀译
·1986年1月1日协会冷冻食品(冻肉除外)保险A条款/郭国汀译
·1995年11月1日协会运费定期战争和罢工险条款/郭国汀译
·1986年1月1日协会冷冻食品(冻肉除外)保险(C)条款/郭国汀译
·1983年2月1日协会散装油类保险条款/郭国汀译
·1983年12月1日协会盗窃、偷窃和提货不着保险条款(仅用于协会保险条款)/郭国汀译
·1986年1月1日国际肉类贸易协会冻肉展期保险条款(仅适用于协会冻肉保险(A)条款/郭国汀译
·1986年4月1日协会木材贸易联合会条款(与木材贸易联合会达成的协议)/郭国汀译
***(3)英国协会保险船舶条款英中对译
·1983年10月1日和1995年11月1日协会船舶定期保险条款/郭国汀译
·1987年7月20日协会船舶港口险定期保险条款/郭国汀译
·1988年6月1日协会造船厂的风险保险条款/郭国汀译
·1995年11月1日协会船舶乘客设备定期保险条款/郭国汀译
·1995年11月1日协会船舶航次保险条款/郭国汀译
·1995年11月1日协会船舶全损、共同海损和3/4碰撞责任航次保险条款/郭国汀译
·1995年11月1日协会船舶运费定期保险条款/郭国汀译
·1995年11月1日协会机器损害附加免赔额保险条款/郭国汀译
·1985年11月1日协会游艇保险条款/郭国汀译
·1987年7月20日协会船壳定期保赔保险条款/郭国汀译
·1995年11月1日附加免赔额适应条款/郭国汀译
·1995年11月1日协会船舶额外责任定期保险条款/郭国汀译
·1995年11月1日协会船舶全损定期保险条款/郭国汀译
·1995年11月1日协会船舶限制危险定期保险条款/郭国汀译
·1995年11月1日协会船舶运费航次保险条款/郭国汀译
·1996年1月1日协会运费共同海损-污染费用保险条款/郭国汀译
·1987年1月1日协会集装箱定期保险条款/郭国汀译
·1987年7月20日协会渔船保险条款/郭国汀译
·1995年11月1日协会船舶搬移另件保险条款/郭国汀译
·1995年11月1日协会船舶附加危险条款/郭国汀译
·1995年11月1日协会船舶全损、共同海损、3/4碰撞责任定期保险条款/郭国汀译
·1995年11月1日协会船舶营运费用和增加价值(全损险,包括额外责任)定期保险条款/郭国汀译
·1995年11月1日协会船舶租赁设备定期保险条款/郭国汀译
·1997年3月1日协会船舶抵押权人利益保险条款/郭国汀译
***(4)英国协会保险运费、战争、罢工险保险条款英中对译
·1982年1月1日协会货物罢工险条款/郭国汀译
·1995年11月1日协会船舶营运费用和增值定期保险条款/郭国汀译
·1995年11月1日协会船舶战争险和罢工险条款/郭国汀译
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人权律师辩护律师必读之公正审判指南(英文)

EXTRACTS FROM THE FAIR TRIAL MANUAL
   The Fair Trial Manual (a reference manual on international and regional standards for fair trial, published by Amnesty International in 1998) cites the names of human rights standards and bodies in an abbreviated form. We list below the full names of those cited in the extracts of the Manual presented here, with their abbreviated form given first:
   ABBREVIATED FORM FULL NAME

   African Charter African Charter on Human and Peoples' Rights
   African Commission African Commission on Human and Peoples' Rights
   American Convention American Convention on Human Rights
   American Declaration American Declaration of the Rights and Duties of Man
   Basic Principles for the Treatment of Prisoners Basic Principles for the Treatment of Prisoners (United Nations)
   Basic Principles on the Use of Force and Firearms by Law Enforcement Officials Basic Principles on the Use of Force and Firearms by Law Enforcement Officials (United Nations)
   Body of Principles Body of Principles for the Protection of All Persons under Any Form of Detention or Imprisonment (United Nations)
   Code of Conduct for Law Enforcement Officials Code of Conduct for Law Enforcement Officials (United Nations)
   Committee against Torture Committee against Torture (United Nations)
   Convention against Torture Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment (United Nations)
   Declaration against Torture Declaration on the Protection of All Persons From Being Subjected to Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment (United Nations)
   Declaration on Disappearance Declaration on the Protection of All Persons from Enforced Disappearance (United Nations)
   European Commission European Commission of Human Rights
   European Convention (European) Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms
   European Court European Court of Human Rights
   European Prison Rules European Prison Rules
   Guidelines on the Role of Prosecutors Guidelines on the Role of Prosecutors (United Nations)
   Human Rights Committee Human Rights Committee (United Nations)
   ICC Statute Statute of the International Criminal Court (United Nations)
   ICCPR International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (United Nations)
   Inter-American Commission Inter-American Commission on Human Rights
   Inter-American Convention on Disappearance Inter-American Convention on Forced Disappearance of Persons
   Inter-American Convention on Torture Inter-American Convention to Prevent and Punish Torture
   Principles of Medical Ethics Principles of Medical Ethics relevant to the Role of Health Personnel, particularly Physicians, in the Protection of Prisoners and Detainees against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment (United Nations)
   Rwanda Rules Rules of Procedure and Evidence, International Tribunal for Rwanda (United Nations)
   Rwanda Statute Statute of the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda (United Nations)
   Special Rapporteur on the independence of judges and lawyers Special Rapporteur on the independence of judges and lawyers (United Nations)
   Standard Minimum Rules Standard Minimum Rules for the Treatment of Prisoners (United Nations)
   Universal Declaration Universal Declaration of Human Rights (United Nations)
   Yugoslavia Rules Rules of Procedure and Evidence of the International Tribunal for the Prosecution of Persons Responsible for Serious Violations of International Humanitarian Law Committed in the Territory of the Former Yugoslavia (United Nations)
   Yugoslavia Statute Statute of the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia (United Nations)
   EXTRACTS FROM CHAPTER 5 (Fair Trial Manual)
   The right to be brought promptly before a judge or other officer
   Anyone deprived of their liberty has the right to be brought promptly before a judge or other judicial officer, so that their rights can be protected.
   5.1 The right to be brought promptly before a judge or judicial officer
   In order to safeguard the right to liberty and freedom from arbitrary arrest or detention, and in order to prevent violations of fundamental human rights, all forms of detention or imprisonment must be ordered by or subject to the effective control of a judicial or other authority. [Principle 4 of the Body of Principles.]
   Anyone arrested or detained must be brought promptly before a judge or other officer authorized by law to exercise judicial power. [Article 9(3) of the ICCPR, Article 10(1) of the Declaration on Disappearance, Paragraph 2(C) of the African Commission Resolution, Article 7(5) of the American Convention, Article XI of the Inter-American Convention on Disappearance, Article 5(3) of the European Convention, Article 59(2) of the ICC Statute, Principle 11(1) of the Body of Principles.]
   Article 9(3) of the ICCPR applies to people arrested or detained on a criminal charge, but the other standards apply more broadly to all people deprived of their liberty.
   The purposes of the review before a judge or judicial authority include:
   - to assess whether sufficient legal reason exists for the arrest;
   - to assess whether detention before trial is necessary;
   - to safeguard the well-being of the detainee;
   - and to prevent violations of the detainee's fundamental rights.
   Relevant Standards
   Article 9(3) of the ICCPR:
   "Anyone arrested or detained on a criminal charge shall be brought promptly before a judge or other officer authorized by law to exercise judicial power and shall be entitled to trial within a reasonable time or to release..."
   Principle 11(1) of the Body of Principles:
   "A person shall not be kept in detention without being given an effective opportunity to be heard promptly by a judicial or other authority. A detained person shall have the right to defend himself or to be assisted by counsel as prescribed by law."
   This procedure often provides the detained person with their first opportunity to challenge the lawfulness of their detention and to secure release if the arrest or detention violated their rights.
   The Inter-American Commission has stated that if a court is not officially informed of a detention or is informed only after significant delay, the rights of a detainee are not protected. It pointed out that such situations lend themselves to other types of abuses, erode respect for the courts and their effectiveness and lead to the institutionalization of lawlessness. (12)
   In view of the importance of this right in protecting detainees against serious violations of human rights, including "disappearances", Amnesty International, in its 14-Point Program for the Prevention of "Disappearances", calls for all prisoners to be brought before a judicial authority without delay after being taken into custody.
   5.1.1 Officers authorized to exercise judicial power If the detained person is brought before an officer other than a judge, the officer must be authorized to exercise judicial power and must be independent of the parties. All those exercising judicial authority must be independent -- they must fulfil the criteria set out in the Basic Principles on the Independence of the Judiciary (see Chapter 12.4 The right to be heard by an independent tribunal).
   For example, the European Court held that there was a violation of Article 5(3) of the European Convention when the ''other officer authorised by law to exercise judicial authority'' was an auditeur militaire or a public prosecutor who could intervene in subsequent proceedings as a representative of the prosecuting authority. (13)
   5.2 What does "prompt" mean?
   International standards require that this hearing take place promptly after detention. While no time limits are expressly stated within the standards themselves, and they are to be determined on a case by case basis, the Human Rights Committee has stated that "...delays should not exceed a few days". (14)
   Members of the Human Rights Committee have questioned whether detention for 48 hours without being brought before a judge is not unreasonably long. (15)
    In a death penalty case, the Committee ruled that a delay of one week from the time of arrest before the detainee was brought before a judge was incompatible with Article 9(3) of the ICCPR. (16)

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