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郭国汀律师专栏
·达赖喇嘛抵美国西图参加为期五天的慈善的科学基础大会,据称150000门票全部售出
·布什总统出席奥运开幕式已不确定
·达赖喇嘛今天重申不抵制奥运会
·布什总统决意出席奥运开幕式并非仅由于他性格顽固
***(47)人权律师法律实务
·郭国汀:中国人没有基本人权——2008年加拿大国会中国人权研讨会专稿
·我为何从海事律师转向人权律师?
·盛雪专访郭国汀从海事律师转变成人权律师的心路历程
·我从海事律师转变成人权律师的思想根源
·郭国汀律师受中共政治迫害的直接原因
·我从海事律师转变成人权律师的心路历程
·成为一名人权律师!---郭国汀律师专访
·一个中国人权律师的真实故事
·世界人权日感言/郭国汀
·人权漫谈/南郭
·人权佳话
·保障人权律师的基本人权刻不容缓
·不敢或不愿为法轮功作无罪辩护的律师,不是真正的人权律师!
·人权律师辩护律师必读之公正审判指南(英文)
·我为什么推崇中国人权律师浦志强?
·巴黎律师公会采访中国人权律师郭国汀
·
·人权律师的职责与使命----驳李建强关于严正学力虹案件的声明
·驳斥刘路有关六四屠城的荒唐谬论
·李建强律师与郭国汀律师的公开论战
·李建强与郭国汀律师的论战之二
·英雄多多益善!郭国汀
·英雄辈出的时代刘路千万别走错路 郭国汀
·答康平伙计关于郭律师与李建强之争
·揭穿刘荻的画皮----南郭与[三刘]之争不属刘家私事而是中国民主运动的公事
·刘荻的灵魂竟是如此[美丽] !
·废除或修改煽动颠覆国家政权罪思想监狱中国律师集体第一议案的诞生
·团结起来共同对敌 答刘路先生的公开信
·敦促刘路公开辩污的公开函
·敦促刘路公开辩污的最后通牒
·我为法轮功抗辩——答刘路质询函
***自由人权宪政共和民主之路争论
·中国人缺少宽容精神么?
·郭国汀评价刘晓波诺奖
·关于刘晓波是否合格人选答阮杰函
·郭国汀评刘晓波之伪无敌论
·中共怪异重判刘晓波的意图旨在克意扶持默契能控的民运‘领袖’
·质疑刘晓波先生盛赞俞可平民主论 郭国汀
·我愿意出任刘晓波2006/guoguoting/68
·郭国汀与刘晓波先生关于人民起义权利的对话
·刘晓波案之我见
·郭国汀预言刘晓波与中共之间的默契
·刘晓波虚伪有余而真诚不足
·强烈谴责中共专制暴政公然践踏法律枉法刑拘刘晓波先生!
·为什么应当支持刘晓波?
·郭国汀邀请刘晓波公开论战的函
·告别自由中国论坛网友公开函
·郭国汀:质疑一个刘晓波超过全部民运人士
***(48)人权律师思想辩护策略论战
·律师应当如何为颠复及煽动颠复国家政权罪抗辩?----就如何为郭泉、谢长发、刘晓波、谭作人等民主斗士抗辩答网友咨询
·辩护律师为法轮功讲真相案件辩护的基本原则 郭国汀
·真正的刑辩大律师! 郭国汀
·深入骨髓的奴性!
·《九评共产党》是没有价值的政治大字报?
·如何识别网警共特?----答毕时园伙计的质疑
·中共网络别动队业已渗透大量西方中文网站
·什么是南郭之一不怕死二不爱钱?
·答草兄及建强兄质疑
·答张鹤慈先生质疑
·刘荻为何害怕这篇文章? 中国知识分子死了!
·郭国汀答小乔函
***(49)重大人权案件辩护
·民运英雄杨天水危在旦夕
·强烈谴责中共暴政企图暗杀冯正虎先生的流氓下三滥作为!
·关注声援支持人权律师刘士辉,强烈抗议流氓暴政的政治迫害人权律师!
·呼吁全球华人关注支持民族英雄郭泉博士
·真正的知识分子英雄郭泉博士
·决不以出卖灵魂出卖人格尊严为代价打官司
·严正警告流氓无赖中共匪帮
·南郭警告胡锦涛别再玩火!
·强烈谴责中共暴政枉法滥捕自由作家谭作人先生
·胡锦涛最害怕最恨谁?
·为申曦(曾节明)作证的证明函
·论颠覆及煽动颠覆国家政权罪
·颠覆国家政权罪的法理解析
·中共阉法院认定的颠覆国家政权案件"犯罪事实"简析
·关注声援支持中国知识分子英雄郭泉博士
·我为郭泉博士抗辩
·敬请各界朋友关注声援支持民主斗士郭泉教授
·郭国汀律师称中共颠覆(煽动颠覆)国家政权罪系违宪恶法
·烈女邓玉娇传记六则
·“法学专家”是因“理性”还是因“奴性”而胡说八道?!
·强烈谴责胡锦涛及中共专制暴政枉法杀害英雄义士杨佳!
·杨佳精神不朽 抗暴当走退党之路
·岂能将英雄义士杨佳与希特勒、哈尔曼、唐永明相提并论?!
·杨佳案7名涉案警察证人和杨佳的母亲必须出庭作证
·郭国汀预言死刑将造就更多杨佳
·杨佳略传六则一揽
·悼颂杨佳
·杨佳依自然法无罪而且是个值得国人敬重的英雄!
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消除一切形式歧视妇女的国际公约1981

消除一切形式歧视妇女的国际公约1981
   Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination
   against Women

   The convention elaborates and puts into the form of a multilateral treaty the substantive provisions of the DECLARATION ON THE ELIMINATION OF DISCRIMINATION AGAINST WOMEN. It establishes international machinery for the implementation of its provisions along the lines of those established for implementation of the INTERNATIONAL COVENANT ON CIVIL AND POLITICAL RIGHTS, i.e., an l8-member COMMITTEE ON THE ELIMINATION OF DISCRIMINATION AGAINST WOMEN empowered to settle disputes between States parties concerning observance of the convention and to receive and examine information from them on measures taken to achieve its goals. The convention's underlying philosophy is that discrimination against women is incompatible with human dignity and constitutes an obstacle to the full realization of the potentialities of women; therefore, the right of women to share equally in improved conditions of life must be promoted and protected.
   The convention was adopted by the UN General Assembly on 18 December 1979 (resolution 34/180) and entered into force on 3 September 1981; the text, annexed to the resolution, is as follows:
   The States Parties to the present Convention,
   Noting that the Charter of the United Nations reaffirms faith in fundamental human rights, in the dignity and worth of the human person and in the equal rights of men and women,
   Noting that the Universal Declaration of Human Rights affirms the principle of the inadmissibility of discrimination and proclaims that all human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights and that everyone is entitled to all the rights and freedoms set forth therein, without distinction of any kind, including distinction based on sex,
   Noting that the States parties to the International Covenants on Human Rights have the obligation to ensure the equal right of men and women to enjoy all economic, social, cultural, civil and political rights,
   Considering the international conventions concluded under the auspices of the United Nations and the specialized agencies promoting equality of rights of men and women,
   Noting also the resolutions, declarations and recommendations adopted by the United Nations and the specialized agencies promoting equality of rights of men and women,
   Concerned, however, that despite these various instruments extensive discrimination against women continues to exist,
   Recalling that discrimination against women violates the principles of equality of rights and respect for human dignity, is an obstacle to the participation of women, on equal terms with men, in the political, social, economic and cultural life of their countries, hampers the growth of the prosperity of society and the family and makes more difficult the full development of the potentialities of women in the service of their countries and of humanity,
   Concerned that in situations of poverty women have the least access to food, health, education, training and opportunities for employment and other needs,
   Convinced that the establishment of the new international economic order based on equity and justice will contribute significantly towards the promotion of equality between men and women,
   Emphasizing that the eradication of apartheid, all forms of racism, racial discrimination, colonialism, neocolonialism, aggression, foreign occupation and domination and interference in the internal affairs of States is essential to the full enjoyment of the rights of men and women that the strengthening of international peace and security, the relaxation of international tension, mutual cooperation among all States irrespective of their social and economic systems, general and complete disarmament, in particular nuclear disarmament under strict and effective international control, the affirmation of the principles of justice, equality and mutual benefit in relations among countries and the realization of the right of peoples under alien and colonial domination and foreign occupation to self- determination and independence, as well as respect for national sovereignty and territorial integrity, will promote social progress and development and as a consequence will contribute to the attainment of full equality between men and women,
   Convinced that the full and complete development of a country, the welfare of the world and the cause of peace require the maximum participation of women on equal terms with men in all fields,
   Bearing in mind the great contribution of women to the welfare of the family and to the development of society, so far not fully recognized, the social significance of maternity and the role of both parents in the family and in the upbringing of children, and aware that the role of women in procreation should not be a basis for discrimination but that the upbringing of children requires a sharing of responsibility between men and women and society as a whole,
   Aware that a change in the traditional role of men as well as the role of women in society and in the family is needed to achieve full equality between men and women,
   Determined to implement the principles set forth in the Declaration on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women and, for that purpose, to adopt the measures required for the elimination of such discrimination in all its forms and manifestations,
   Have agreed on the following:
   Part I
   Article 1
   For the purposes of the present Convention, the term "discrimination against women" shall mean any distinction, exclusion or restriction made on the basis of sex which has the effect or purpose of impairing or nullifying the recognition, enjoyment or exercise by women, irrespective of their marital status, on a basis of equality of men and women, of human rights and fundamental freedoms in the political, economic, social, cultural, civil or any other field.
   Article 2
   States Parties condemn discrimination against women in all its forms, agree to pursue by all appropriate means and without delay a policy of eliminating discrimination against women and, to this end, undertake:
   (a) To embody the principle of the equality of men and women in their national constitutions or other appropriate legislation if not yet incorporated therein and to ensure, through law and other appropriate means, the practical realization of this principle;
   (b) To adopt appropriate legislative and other measures, including sanctions where appropriate, prohibiting all discrimination against women;
   (c) To establish legal protection of the rights of women on an equal basis with men and to ensure through competent national tribunals and other public institutions the effective protection of women against any act of discrimination;
   (d) To refrain from engaging in any act or practice of discrimination against women and to ensure that public authorities and institutions shall act in conformity with this obligation;
   (e) To take all appropriate measures to eliminate discrimination against women by any person, organization or enterprise;
   (f) To take all appropriate measures, including legislation, to modify or abolish existing laws, regulations, customs and practices which constitute discrimination against women;
   (g) To repeal all national penal provisions which constitute discrimination against women.
   Article 3
   States Parties shall take in all fields, in particular in the political, social, economic and cultural fields, all appropriate measures, including legislation, to ensure the full development and advancement of women, for the purpose of guaranteeing them the exercise and enjoyment of human rights and fundamental freedoms on a basis of equality with men.
   Article 4
   1. Adoption by States Parties of temporary special measures aimed at accelerating de facto equality between men and women shall not be considered discrimination as defined in the present Convention, but shall in no way entail as a consequence the maintenance of unequal or separate standards, these measures shall be discontinued when the objectives of equality of opportunity and treatment have been achieved.

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