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郭国汀律师专栏
·麦肯总统候选人的基本政策主张
***(42)中国民主运动研究
· 自由宪政民主运动与中共暴政的决战主战场何在?
·国人应当认清中共政权的极权专制流氓犯罪本质
·真正觉醒后英勇的你我他才是决定中国前途和命运的基本力量
·是谁制造了大陆中国的“暴戾之气的泛滥”?
·我为何对中共极权暴政及胡锦涛没有仇恨维有鄙视?
·是共特黑而非民运黑
·我所了解的政治新星曾节明
· 南郭点评陈子明社会运动与政治演练
· 序《我的两个中国 --一个六四天安门学生反革命的实录》
·时代的最强音:“六四”屠城二十一周年口号
· 警惕共匪假冒民运人士故意毁损民运声誉—答人民思想家
·论颠覆国家政权罪的律师辩护
·郭律师点评杨建立博士论三个中国
·退出自由中国论坛的公开声明
·陈尔晋与张国堂之争的性质
·我的几个基本观点答张国堂先生公开信
·中国民运战略研究
·中国民运当前面临问题与对策研究
·郭国汀加入民主中国阵线的公开声明
·论公推中国民运政治领袖的必要性
·论公推自荐公选民运政治精神领袖的紧迫性
·中国民主运动领袖论?答方文武先生
·关于筹建过渡政府与公选民运领袖问题的讨论
·关于民运领袖过渡政府与程序正义的争论
·历史功臣还是历史罪人?
·中国民主运动到底需要什么样的政治精神领袖?
·谁是中国民主运动政治精神领袖的最佳人选?
·谁是中共极权专制暴政最害怕的劲敌?
·郭国汀:汪兆钧信是中共内部爆炸的一颗原子弹
·严正责令胡锦涛及中共当局——立即无条件释放民运志士李国涛!
·反抗中共专制暴政的先驱者与英雄(修正)
·相会伟大的刘文辉烈士英魂
·敬请胡锦涛先生立即制止下属恶意疯狂攻击南郭之电脑
·"六四领袖去死吧!"及 " 逢共必反、逢华必反"?!
·草根吾友欲往何处去?
·真实的陈泱潮故事
·陈泱潮自传之二
·强烈推荐国人必读之最佳政论文
·答小溪先生质疑
·驳斥草虾兼与草根商榷!
·伟大的中国文化复兴宣言 郭国汀
·关于宣讲人权公约基金申请推荐函
·必须立即终止反动透顶的行政官员任命制
·自由中国论坛的不锈钢老鼠到底是什么角色?
·关注李宇宙的命运
***(43)中国民主运动的思想、理论与实践
·中国争人权言论表达自由权的先驱者与英雄名录
·民主革命论 陈泱潮
·《特权论的》精髓——对共产专制特权制度的深刻致命批判
·特权论的精髓——对共产专制特权制度的深刻致命批判 郭国汀
·枭雄黑道乱世的一百年!郭国汀
·论无产阶级民主制度下的两党制
·陈泱潮评胡锦涛
·陈泱潮论江泽民
·我为什么特别推崇陈泱潮先生的思想理论?
·天才论/郭国汀
·彻底揭露批判中共极权专制流氓暴政本质的奇书
·极权专制暴政的根源/郭国汀
·共产极权专制暴政的典型特征——简评陈泱潮的《特权论》
·论共产极权专制政权的本质——三评陈泱潮天才著作《特权论》
·何谓“无产阶级专政”
·陈泱潮论马克思主义的无产阶级专政 郭国汀
·论初级无产阶级专政 /新南郭点评
·论高级无产阶级专政 郭国汀
·中国何往?——政治思想论战书 /新南郭
·陈泱潮论改良主义/郭国汀
·文化大革命是中国民主革命的序幕 郭国汀
·陈泱潮妙评邓小平的“瞎猫屠夫理论” 郭国汀
·陈泱潮精评毛泽东 郭国汀
·论共产党官僚垄断特权阶级 郭国汀
·共产党官员为什么普遍腐化堕落?郭国汀
·“三个代表”是个什么玩意? 郭国汀
·对抗性的社会基本矛盾 郭国汀
·为何中共官员多具有奴隶主和奴仆的双重人格? 郭国汀
·共产专制特权等级制 郭国汀
·人民“公仆”是如何变成骑在人民头上作威作福的老爷的? 郭国汀
·神化首要分子神化党与邪教 郭国汀
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·陈尔晋论今日中国社会主要矛盾及前途与命运
·陈泱潮先生在当代中国思想史上的地位 作者:曾节明
***(44)反中共极权专制暴政争自由宪政人权民主绝食抗暴民权运动
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·郭律师致高智晟女儿格格的公开信
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·郭国汀 高智晟律师为何不发声?
·我眼中的高智晟
·郭国汀 从我的经历看中共当局诽谤高智晟的下流
·所谓高智晟公开声明及悔罪书肯定是伪造的
·真正的中国人的伟大怒吼!
·加拿大著名人权律师安世立支持声援全球绝食抗暴的声明
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·呼吁全球万人同步大绝食宣言
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维吉尼亚权利法案1776

   维吉尼亚权利法案1776
   
   Virginia Bill Of Rights, 1776
   A Strong Current In The Evolution
   Of Written Constitutions In The US

   
   
   Written by George Mason (1725-1792) for his native Virginia, this Bill Of Rights was adopted by Virginia state government in early 1776. Its statements of civic freedoms, civic rights, as well as governmental and public servant obligations, appear in the Declaration Of Independence's first two paragraphs and the Constitution's first ten amendments, our national Bill Of Rights -- given below below for comparison. It also shows that the separation of powers between branches of government, another main current in the evolution of US constitutions, was already extant in 1776, not something newly propounded by the founders in 1787.
   George Mason studied history, law, and political philosophy across the ages and was revered by his peers in Virginia government as having clear and profound understandings about the nature of government. Although Mason was an opinion leader in such matters, this document reflects what can be presumed to be the majority sentiments of the times throughout the Colonies. It's an authentic American document and a large part of the mainstream thinking on bills of rights that informed Thomas Jefferson's rights writing in the Declaration of Independence -- and that ultimately overwhelmed the founders' rejection of a bill of rights for the Constitution.
   
   
   
   
   
   Virginia Bill Of Rights, 1776
   A declaration of rights made by the representatives of the good people of Virginia, assembled in full and free convention; which rights do pertain to them and their posterity, as the basis and foundation of government.
   
   SECTION 1.
   That all men are by nature equally free and independent, and have certain inherent rights, of which, when they enter into a state of society, they cannot, by any compact, deprive or divest their posterity; namely, the enjoyment of life and liberty, with the means of acquiring and possessing property, and pursuing and obtaining happiness and safety.
   SECTION 2.
   That all power is vested in, and consequently derived from, the people; that magistrates are their trustees and servants, and at all times amenable to them.
   SECTION 3.
   That government is, or ought to be, instituted for the common benefit, protection, and security of the people, nation, or community; of all the various modes and forms of government, that is best which is capable of producing the greatest degree of happiness and safety, and is most effectually secured against the danger of maladministration; and that, when any government shall be found inadequate or contrary to these purposes, a majority of the community hath an indubitable, inalienable, and indefeasible right to reform, alter, or abolish it, in such manner as shall be judged most conducive to the public weal.
   SECTION 4.
   That no man, or set of men, are entitled to exclusive or separate emoluments or privileges from the community, but in consideration of public services; which, not being descendible, neither ought the offices of magistrate, legislator, or judge to be hereditary.
   SECTION 5.
   That the legislative and executive powers of the State should be separate and distinct from the judiciary; and that the members of the two first may be restrained from oppression, by feeling and participating the burdens of the people, they should, at fixed periods, be reduced to private station, return into that body from which they were originally taken, and the vacancies be supplied by frequent, certain, and regular elections, in which all, or any part of the former members, to be again eligible, as the laws shall direct.
   SECTION 6.
   That elections of members to serve as representatives of the people, in assembly, ought to be free; and that all men, having sufficient evidence of permanent common interest with, and attachment to, the community, have the right of suffrage, and cannot be taxed or deprived of their property for public uses, without their own consent, or that of their representatives so elected, nor bound by any law to which they have not, in like manner, assented, for the public good.
   SECTION 7.
   That all power of suspending laws, or the execution of laws, by any authority, without consent of the representatives of the people, is injurious to their rights, and ought not to be exercised.
   SECTION 8.
   That in all capital or criminal prosecutions a man hath a right to demand the cause and nature of his accusation, to be confronted with the accusers and witnesses, to call for evidence in his favor, and to a speedy trial by an impartial jury of twelve men of his vicinage, without whose unanimous consent he cannot be found guilty; nor can he be compelled to give evidence against himself; that no man be deprived of his liberty, except by the law of the land or the judgment of his peers.
   SECTION 9.
   That excessive bail ought not to be required, nor excessive fines imposed, nor cruel and unusual punishments inflicted.
   SECTION 10.
   That general warrants, whereby an officer or messenger may be commanded to search suspected places without evidence of a fact committed, or to seize any person or persons not named, or whose offence is not particularly described and supported by evidence, are grievous and oppressive, and ought not to be granted.
   SECTION 11.
   That in controversies respecting property, and in suits between man and man, the ancient trial by jury is preferable to any other, and ought to be held sacred.
   SECTION 12.
   That the freedom of the press is one of the great bulwarks of liberty, and can never be restrained but by despotic governments.
   SECTION 13.
   That a well-regulated militia, composed of the body of the people, trained to arms, is the proper, natural, and safe defence of a free State; that standing armies, in time of peace, should be avoided, as dangerous to liberty; and that in all cases the military should be under strict subordination to, and governed by, the civil power.
   SECTION 14.
   That the people have a right to uniform government; and, therefore, that no government separate from, or independent of the government of Virginia, ought to be erected or established within the limits thereof.
   SECTION 15.
   That no free government, or the blessings of liberty, can be preserved to any people, but by a firm adherence to justice, moderation, temperance, frugality, and virtue, and by frequent recurrence to fundamental principles.
   SECTION 16.
   That religion, or the duty which we owe to our Creator, and the manner of discharging it, can be directed only by reason and conviction, not by force or violence; and therefore all men are equally entitled to the free exercise of religion, according to the dictates of conscience; and that it is the mutual duty of all to practise Christian forbearance, love, and charity towards each other.
   

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