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郭国汀律师专栏
·中共已是末日黄昏----郭国汀声援杨在新律师
·希望之声专访郭国汀用法律手段揪出幕后凶手
·【专访】郭国汀从海事律师到人权律师的转变
·专访郭国汀:为女儿打破沉默
·郭国汀谴责中共对他全家迫害恐吓
·郭国汀律师谈中国司法现状
·人权律师郭国汀在加拿大谈六四
·加拿大华人举办烛光悼念纪念六四-著名人权律师郭国汀称退党运动具有重大意义 
·采访郭国汀律师:被逼离婚 战斗到底
·华盛顿邮报报导高智晟律师事件
·[专访]郭国汀律师:从刘金宝案谈开去
·希望之声专访郭国汀和盛雪
·大纪元专访郭国汀 中共垮台是必然的
·郭国汀谈高智晟律师的公开信
·中共的末日只是时间迟早的问题
·中华文化与道德重建
·【专访】郑恩宠律师郭国汀谈郑案内情
·【专访】辩护律师郭国汀谈清水君案
·郭国汀指雅虎遵守当地法律说无法律根据
·郭国汀触怒司法当局:中国律师维护社会正义风险大
·US lawmakers ask Beijing to reinstate law firm of rights activist
***国际透视
·北朝鲜疯狂发展核武器为哪般?
·中国强劳产品出口的罪孽
·郭国汀 中国人民的真正朋友加拿大总理斯蒂芬 哈柏
·只有抛弃马列毛实现法治自由民主21世纪才有可能属于中国
·华盛顿邮报详细报导陈光诚案判决情况
·中国是国际网络表达自由的头号敌人
·华盛顿邮报陈光诚案庭审报导Chinese Rights Activist Stands Trial After Police Detain Defense Team
·新闻检查最严厉的十个国家胡锦涛称要向北朝鲜和古巴学习政治!
·国际人权观察就赵长青狱中受虐致胡温公开函
·中国驻美使馆拒收立即释放师涛的国际呼吁书
·国际保护记者委员会哀悼吴湘湖记者
·BBC 英语新闻报导《冰点》被封事件
·国际保护记者委员会关注声援杨天水
·国际保护记者委员会谴责中共迫害记者李长青
·国际保护记者委员会呼吁立即无条件释放杨天水
·CPJ URGER MR.HU RELEASE JOURNALISTS IN CHINA
·Overcoming Violence Abroad and at Home
·Lawyers Sentence Tests IOCs Ability to Enforce Olympic Promises
·Free China Rally in Canberra,
·Open Letter to President Hu Jintao and Prime Minister Wen Jiabao from the Coalition to Investigate the Persecution of Falun Gong in China (CIPFG)
·非洲的复兴(African Renaissance)
***(56)大学日记
·错误是我犯的,但数十年后亲自纠错我还不伟大吗?!
·郭国汀 “只有社会主义才能救中国”质疑
·国家是民族矛盾不可调和的产物而非阶级斗争的产物/郭国汀
·阶级斗争的思考/郭国汀
·论干部制度/郭国汀
·无产阶级领袖有感/郭国汀
·学习与开放/郭国汀
·如何理解劳动?──有感于中国1956─1959年之“三大改造/郭国汀”
·时空畅想/郭国汀
·文革教训原因考/郭国汀
·对物质的思考/郭国汀
·精神文明与物质文明/郭国汀
·内因与外因关系的沉思
·外因是决定事物运动变化发展的根本原因
·开放党禁与多党联合政治
·论质、量互变关系
·如何理解劳动?——有感于中国1956—1959年之“三大改造”
·人类与自然环境
·共产主义是违背自然规律的妄想
***(57)网友评价评论与批评郭国汀
·一代大师
·良好的名誉是人们在任何时代任何社会安身立命之本
·各界人士对郭国汀律师高度评价
·浦志强、张思之大律师评价郭国汀
·清水君(黄金秋):我要特别感谢郭国汀大律师
·上海美女评价郭国汀律师
·欧阳小戎忆郭国汀律师
·不要迫害中国的脊梁 ──郭国汀
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·为国为民 侠之大者——郭国汀
·被缚的普罗米修司----
·感谢郭国汀律师
·让英雄的血流在光天化日之下
·声援中国人权律师郭国汀、强烈反对中共利用司法机器釜底抽薪镇压维权运动征集签名书
·谁是当代中国最高贵的人?
·答浦志强对郭国汀的批评
·警惕:中共对郭国汀律师的迫害并没有中止
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·值得大学生与爱国愤青一读的戏剧
·大中学生及爱国愤青的娱乐读物
·刘路与郭国汀之间的友情
·刘路(李建强)共特真相大暴露
·为什么说李建强(刘路)是共特?
·欢迎李建强公开辩污论战
·我与刘晓波先生的恩怨
·我与英雄警官之间的友谊
·律师为英雄辩护的最佳策略
·敬请张耀杰先生公开向郭国汀大律师赔礼道歉的公开函
·郭国汀训斥张耀杰
·怒斥张耀杰----南郭系当之无愧的大律师!
·痛斥張耀傑----予汝真诚道欠的最后通谍!
·郭国汀痛斥假冒伪劣人格低下的[学者]張耀傑
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国际刑事法庭(芦旺达)程序与证据规则(1995)

国际刑事法庭(芦旺达)程序与证据规则(1995)
   International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda Rules of Procedure and Evidence, U.N. Doc. ITR/3/REV.1 (1995), entered into force 29 June 1995.
   

   PART ONE: GENERAL PROVISIONS
   Rule I
   Entry into Force
   These Rules of Procedure and Evidence, adopted pursuant to Article 14 of the Statute of the Tribunal, shall come into force on 29 June l995.
   Rule 2
   Definitions
   (A) In the Rules, unless the context otherwise requires, the following terms shall mean:
   Rules: The Rules referred to in Rule l;
   Statute: The Statute of the Tribunal adopted by Security Council resolution 955 of 8 November 1994;
   Tribunal: The International Criminal Tribunal for the Prosecution of Persons Responsible for Genocide and other Serious Violations of International Humanitarian Law Committed in the Territory of Rwanda and Rwandan citizens responsible for Genocide and other such violations committed in the territory of neighbouring States, between l January 1994 and 31 December 1994, established by Security Council resolution 955 of 8 November 1994.
   Accused: A person against whom an indictment has been submitted in accordance with Rule 47;
   Arrest: The act of taking a suspect or an accused into custody by a national authority;
   Bureau: A body composed of the President, the Vice-President and the more senior Presiding Judge of the Trial Chambers;
   Investigation: All activities undertaken by the Prosecutor under the Statute and the Rules for the collection of information and evidence;
   Party: The Prosecutor or the accused;
   President: The President of the Tribunal;
   Prosecutor: The Prosecutor designated pursuant to Article 15 of the Statute;
   Regulations: The provisions framed by the Prosecutor pursuant to Rule 37(a) for the purpose of directing the functions of his Office;
   Suspect: A person concerning whom the Prosecutor possesses reliable information which tends to show that he may have committed a crime over which the Tribunal has jurisdiction;
   Transaction: A number of acts or omissions whether occurring as one event or a number of events, at the same or different locations and being part of a common scheme, strategy or plan;
   Victim: A person against whom a crime over which the Tribunal has jurisdiction has allegedly been committed.
   (B) In the Rules, the masculine shall include the feminine and the singular the plural, and vice-versa.
   Rule 3
   Languages
   (A) The working languages of the Tribunal shall be English and French.
   (B) An accused shall have the right to use his own language.
   (C) Any other person appearing before the Tribunal, other than as counsel, who does not have sufficient knowledge of either of the two working languages, may use his own language.
   (D) Counsel for an accused may apply to the Presiding Judge of a Chamber for leave to use a language other than the two working ones or the language of the accused. If such leave is granted, the expenses of interpretation and translation shall be borne by the Tribunal to the extent, if any, determined by the President, taking into account the rights of the defence and the interests of justice.
   (E) The Registrar shall make any necessary arrangements for interpretation and translation into and from the working languages.
   Rule 4
   Meetings away from the Seat of the Tribunal
   A Chamber may exercise its functions at a place other than the seat of the Tribunal, if so authorised by the President in the interests of justice.
   Rule 5
   Non-compliance with Rules
   Any objection by a party to an act of another party on the ground of non-compliance with the Rules or Regulations shall be raised at the earliest opportunity; it shall be upheld, and the act declared null, only if the act was inconsistent with the fundamental principles of fairness and has occasioned a miscarriage of Justice.
   Rule 6
   Amendment of the Rules
   (A) Proposals for amendment of the Rules may be made by a Judge, the Prosecutor or the Registrar and shall be adopted if agreed to by not less than seven Judges at a plenary meeting of the Tribunal convened with notice of the proposal addressed to all Judges.
   (B) An amendment to the Rules may be otherwise adopted, provided it is unanimously approved by the Judges.
   (C) An amendment shall enter into force immediately, but shall not operate to prejudice the rights of the accused in any pending case.
   Rule 7
   Authentic Texts
   The English and French texts of the Rules shall be equally authentic. In case of discrepancy, the version which is more consonant with the spirit of the Statute and the Rules shall prevail.
   PART TWO: PRIMACY OF THE TRIBUNAL
   Rule 8
   Request for Information
   Where it appears to the Prosecutor that a crime within the jurisdiction of the Tribunal is or has been the subject of investigations or criminal proceedings instituted in the courts of any State, he may request the State to forward to him all relevant information in that respect, and the State shall transmit to him such information forthwith in accordance with Article 28 of the Statute.
   Rule 9
   Prosecutor's Request for Deferral
   Where it appears to the Prosecutor that in any such investigations or criminal proceedings instituted in the courts of any State:
   (i) the act being investigated or which is the subject of those proceedings is characterised as an ordinary crime;
   (ii) there is a lack of impartiality or independence, or the investigations or proceedings are designed to shield the accused from international criminal responsibility, or the case is not diligently prosecuted; or
   (iii)what is in issue is closely related to, or otherwise involves, significant factual or legal questions which may have implications for investigations or prosecutions before the Tribunal, the Prosecutor may propose to the Trial Chamber designated by the President that a formal request be made that such court defer to the competence of the Tribunal.
   Rule 10
   Formal Request for Deferral
   (A) If it appears to the Trial Chamber seized of a proposal for deferral that, on any of the grounds specified in Rule 9, deferral is appropriate, the Trial Chamber may issue a formal request to the State concerned that its court defer to the competence of the Tribunal.
   (B) A request for deferral shall include a request that the results of the investigation and a copy of the court's records and the judgement, if already delivered, be forwarded to the Tribunal.
   (C) Where deferral to the Tribunal has been requested by a Trial Chamber, any subsequent trial shall be held before the other Trial Chamber.
   Rule 11
   Non-compliance with a Request for Deferral
   If, within sixty days after a request for deferral has been notified by the Registrar to the State under whose jurisdiction the investigations or criminal proceedings have been instituted, the State fails to file a response which satisfies the Trial Chamber that the State has taken or is taking adequate steps to comply with the order, the Trial Chamber may request the President to report the matter to the Security Council.
   Rule 12
   Determinations of Courts of any State
   Subject to Article 9(2) of the Statute, determinations of courts of any State are not binding on the Tribunal.
   Rule 13
   Non Bis in Idem
   When the President receives reliable information to show that criminal proceedings have been instituted against a person before a court of any State for acts constituting serious violations of international humanitarian law under the Statute for which that person has already been tried by the Tribunal, a Trial Chamber shall, following mutatis mutandis the procedure provided in Rule 10, issue a reasoned order requesting that court permanently to discontinue its proceedings. If that court fails to do so, the President may report the matter to the Security Council.
   PART THREE: ORGANISATION OF THE TRIBUNAL
   Section 1: The Judges
   Rule 14
   Solemn Declaration
   (A) Before taking up his duties each Judge shall make the following solemn declaration:
   I solemnly declare that I will perform my duties and exercise my powers as a Judge of the International Criminal Tribunal for the Prosecution of Persons Responsible for Genocide and other Serious Violations of International Humanitarian Law Committed in the Territory of Rwanda and Rwandan citizens responsible for Genocide and other such violations committed in the territory of neighbouring States, between I January 1994 and 31 December 1994, honourably, faithfully, impartially and conscientiously.

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