大家
[发表评论] [查看此文评论]    郭国汀律师专栏
[主页]->[大家]->[郭国汀律师专栏]->[美洲防止酷刑和处罚酷刑责任人的公约]
郭国汀律师专栏
·革命的真实含义
·支撐沙皇的五大政治力量--俄國革命前夕的历史格局
·1917年俄国二月革命
·权欲知识分子与苏俄革命
***(29)《基督教与人类文明》郭国汀编译
·《基督教与文明》
·基督教是自由资本主义之母
·基督教与共产党暴政
·天主教皇与犹太人
·纳粹和法西斯极权主义与基督教及罗马教皇
·极权主义是基督教文化的产物吗?
·纳粹决非极左而是极右也非国家社会主义而是国家资本主义
·恐怖主义与反犹太主义
·纳粹极权兴亡简史
·进化论与基督教信仰
·西班牙宗教法庭
·中国基督教发展简史
·基督教与现代语言
·基督教与理性
·基督教的慈善爱与大学文化教育
·罗马帝国为何迫害基督教?
·基督教与诗歌文学音乐绘画建筑艺术文化美学
·基督教与科学和利玛窦
·基督教与法学
·基督教与哲学
·基督教与自然科学和人文教育体制
·基督教的人人平等和反奴隶制
***(30)《近现当代真实的中国历史》郭国汀译著
·为抗日救亡战争血洒长空的美国空军飞虎队
·蒋介石打输国共内战的七大原因
·西安事变真相
·宛南事变真相:毛想迫斯大林支持他与蒋介石争权同时借刀杀项英
·史迪威与蒋介石的命运
·腐败无能的满清屈辱史
·宛南事变真相
·西安事变真相
·到底是谁领导了抗日救亡战争?
·抗日救亡战争简史
·毛泽东再批判
·郭国汀 毛泽东批判
·国民党比共产党好得多,蒋介石比毛泽东高贵得多
·文革是人类历史上最荒唐最愚蠢最无知最残暴之举/郭国汀
·老毛和中共是中华民族的千古罪犯
·赫鲁晓夫评论毛泽东
***(31)《孙文传奇》郭国汀译著
·南郭:关于孙文评价与网友们的争论
·有关孙中山评价的争论
·孙中山、蒋介石与苏俄
·孙中山蒋介石与苏俄的原则性区别
·《孙中山传奇》郭国汀编译
·《共和革命之父孙中山》
·《共和革命之父孙中山》郭国汀编译
·《共和革命之父孙中山》1、身世
·《共和革命之父孙中山》3、孙文共和民主革命
·《共和革命之父孙中山》6、日本政要支持孙文
·《共和革命之父孙中山》8、义和拳乱
·《共和革命之父孙中山》9、革命派与改良派
·《共和革命之父孙中山》10、孙文革命与华侨和留学生
·《共和革命之父孙中山》11、晚清的改革
·《共和革命之父孙中山传奇》12、四处筹资促革命
·《共和革命之父孙中山》13、黄花岗起义
·《共和革命之父孙中山》14、保路运动
·《共和革命之父孙中山》15、武昌起义
·《共和革命之父孙中山》16、袁世凯趁虚劫权
·《共和革命之父孙中山》17、辛亥革命的意义
·《共和革命之父孙中山》18、捍卫革命精神
·《共和革命之父孙中山》19、宋教仁遇刺
·《共和革命之父孙中山》20、二次革命
·《共和革命之父孙中山》21、袁世凯破坏共和体制
·《共和革命之父孙中山》22、中华革命党
·《共和革命之父孙中山》23、袁世凯称帝闹剧
·《共和革命之父孙中山》24、袁世凯众叛亲离
·《共和革命之父孙中山》25、张勋复辟帝制
·《共和革命之父孙中山》26.孙文护宪
·《共和革命之父孙中山》27.著书立说
·《共和革命之父孙中山》28.新文化运动和五四运动
·29.新文化及五四期间的孙文
·《共和革命之父孙中山》30.东山再起
·《共和革命之父孙中山》31、孙文为何联俄容共?
·《共和革命之父孙中山》32.孙越上海宣言
·《共和革命之父孙中山》33.阴差阳错 逼上梁山
·《共和革命之父孙中山》34.以俄为师
·《共和革命之父孙中山》35.反帝遵儒
·《共和革命之父孙中山》36.关税事件
·《共和革命之父孙中山》37.国民党一大
·《共和革命之父孙中山》38.三民主义
·《共和革命之父孙中山》39.屡战屡北
·《共和革命之父孙中山》40.最后岁月
·《共和革命之父孙中山》41.壮志未酬身先死
·国际权威专家对孙文的客观公正评价
·辛亥革命重大历史与现实意义
***(32)《还原蒋介石》郭国汀译著
·郭国汀谈论毛泽东和蒋介石
·我为何研究孙文,蒋介石及中华民国史?
[列出本栏目所有内容]
欢迎在此做广告
美洲防止酷刑和处罚酷刑责任人的公约


   
   
   美洲防止酷刑和处罚酷刑责任人的公约

   INTER AMERICAN CONVENTION TO PREVENT AND PUNISH TORTURE
   The American States signatory to the present Convention,
   Aware of the provision of the American Convention on Human Rights that no one shall be subjected to torture or to cruel, inhuman, or degrading punishment or treatment;
   Reaffirming that all acts of torture or any other cruel, inhuman, or degrading treatment or punishment constitute an offense against human dignity and a denial of the principles set forth in the Charter of the Organization of American States and in the Charter of the United Nations and are violations of the fundamental human rights and freedoms proclaimed in the American Declaration of the Rights and Duties of Man and the Universal Declaration of Human Rights;
   Noting that, in order for the pertinent rules contained in the aforementioned global and regional instruments to take effect, it is necessary to draft an Inter-American Convention that prevents and punishes torture;
   Reaffirming their purpose of consolidating in this hemisphere the conditions that make for recognition of and respect for the inherent dignity of man, and ensure the full exercise of his fundamental rights and freedoms,
   Have agreed upon the following:
   Article 1
   The State Parties undertake to prevent and punish torture in accordance with the terms of this Convention.
   Article 2
   For the purposes of this Convention, torture shall be understood to be any act intentionally performed whereby physical or mental pain or suffering is inflicted on a person for purposes of criminal investigation, as a means of intimidation, as personal punishment, as a preventive measure, as a penalty, or for any other purpose. Torture shall also be understood to be the use of methods upon a person intended to obliterate the personality of the victim or to diminish his physical or mental capacities, even if they do not cause physical pain or mental anguish.
   The concept of torture shall not include physical or mental pain or suffering that is inherent in or solely the consequence of lawful measures, provided that they do not include the performance of the acts or use of the methods referred to in this article.
   Article 3
   The following shall be held guilty of the crime of torture:
   a. A public servant or employee who acting in that capacity orders, instigates or induces the use of torture, or who directly commits it or who, being able to prevent it, fails to do so.
   b. A person who at the instigation of a public servant or employee mentioned in subparagraph (a) orders, instigates or induces the use of torture, directly commits it or is an accomplice thereto.
   Article 4
   The fact of having acted under orders of a superior shall not provide exemption from the corresponding criminal liability.
   Article 5
   The existence of circumstances such as a state of war, threat of war, state of siege or of emergency, domestic disturbance or strife, suspension of constitutional guarantees, domestic political instability, or other public emergencies or disasters shall not be invoked or admitted as justification for the crime of torture.
   Neither the dangerous character of the detainee or prisoner, nor the lack of security of the prison establishment or penitentiary shall justify torture.
   Article 6
   In accordance with the terms of Article 1, the States Parties shall take effective measures to prevent and punish torture within their jurisdiction.
   The States Parties shall ensure that all acts of torture and attempts to commit torture are offenses under their criminal law and shall make such acts punishable by severe penalties that take into account their serious nature.
   The States Parties likewise shall take effective measures to prevent and punish other cruel, inhuman, or degrading treatment or punishment within their jurisdiction.
   Article 7
   The States Parties shall take measures so that, in the training of police officers and other public officials responsible for the custody of persons temporarily or definitively deprived of their freedom, special emphasis shall be put on the prohibition of the use of torture in interrogation, detention, or arrest.
   The States Parties likewise shall take similar measures to prevent other cruel, inhuman, or degrading treatment or punishment.
   Article 8
   The States Parties shall guarantee that any person making an accusation of having been subjected to torture within their jurisdiction shall have the right to an impartial examination of his case.
   Likewise, if there is an accusation or well-grounded reason to believe that an act of torture has been committed within their jurisdiction, the States Parties shall guarantee that their respective authorities will proceed properly and immediately to conduct an investigation into the case and to initiate, whenever appropriate, the corresponding criminal process.
   After all the domestic legal procedures of the respective State and the corresponding appeals have been exhausted, the case may be submitted to the international fora whose competence has been recognized by that State.
   Article 9
   The States Parties undertake to incorporate into their national laws regulations guaranteeing suitable compensation for victims of torture.
   None of the provisions of this article shall affect the right to receive compensation that the victim or other persons may have by virtue of existing national legislation.
   Article 10
   No statement that is verified as having been obtained through torture shall be admissible as evidence in a legal proceeding, except in a legal action taken against a person or persons accused of having elicited it through acts of torture, and only as evidence that the accused obtained such statement by such means.
   Article 11
   The States Parties shall take the necessary steps to extradite anyone accused of having committed the crime of torture or sentenced for commission of that crime, in accordance with their respective national laws on extradition and their international commitments on this matter.
   Article 12
   Every State Party shall take the necessary measures to establish its jurisdiction over the crime described in this Convention in the following cases:
   a. When torture has been committed within its jurisdiction;
   b. When the alleged criminal is a national of that State; or
   c. When the victim is a national of that State and it so deems appropriate.
   Every State Party shall also take the necessary measures to establish its jurisdiction over the crime described in this Convention when the alleged criminal is within the area under its jurisdiction and it is not appropriate to extradite him in accordance with Article 11.
   This Convention does not exclude criminal jurisdiction exercised in accordance with domestic law.
   Article 13
   The crime referred to in Article 2 shall be deemed to be included among the extraditable crimes in every extradition treaty entered into between States Parties. The States Parties undertake to include the crime of torture as an extraditable offence in every extradition treaty to be concluded between them.
   Every State Party that makes extradition conditional on the existence of a treaty may, if it receives a request for extradition from another State Party with which it has no extradition treaty, consider this Convention as the legal basis for extradition in respect of the crime of torture. Extradition shall be subject to the other conditions that may be required by the law of the requested State.
   States Parties which do not make extradition conditional on the existence of a treaty shall recognize such crimes as extraditable offences between themselves, subject to the conditions required by the law of the requested State.
   Extradition shall not be granted nor shall the person sought be returned when there are grounds to believe that his life is in danger, that he will be subjected to torture or to cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment, or that he will be tried by special or ad hoc courts in the requesting State.
   Article 14
   When a State Party does not grant the extradition, the case shall be submitted to its competent authorities as if the crime had been committed within its jurisdiction, for the purposes of investigation, and when appropriate, for criminal action, in accordance with its national law. Any decision adopted by these authorities shall be communicated to the State that has requested the extradition.

[下一页]

©Boxun News Network All Rights Reserved.
所有栏目和文章由作者或专栏管理员整理制作,均不代表博讯立场