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郭国汀律师专栏
·《我的二十年律师生涯》(2):灭顶之灾
·《我的二十年律师生涯》(3):奋力拚搏
·《我的二十年律师生涯》(4):东山再起
·《我的二十年律师生涯》(5):山重水复
·《我的二十年律师生涯》(6):我的中国心
·郭国汀坎坷律师路(8):不得不说的故事──精神病患者
·郭国汀坎坷律师路(7):知青岁月
·郭国汀坎坷律师路(9):孤独的长跑者
·郭国汀坎坷律师路(10):为法治而战
·郭国汀坎坷律师路(11):冤杀的「恶霸」
·郭国汀坎坷律师路(12):哲思飞天
·郭国汀坎坷律师路(13):我的精神病院生涯真相
·《我的二十年律师生涯》—与《中国律师网》网友们的对话
·New York Time A Mild Shanghai Lawyer and His Accidental Crusade
·Guoting(Thomas) Guo's Resume
·A Chinese Human Right lawyer’s story by Guo Guoting
·My life mission , to help my country to set up the true rule of law. By Guo Guoting
·New York Judge interview with Thomas G.Guo( Guo Guoting)
·China Human Right report 2005
·Is there human rights in China?
·Thomasguo 's speech on the searching Justice conference
·My Human Rights Lawyer’s Career (Profile)
·Index of Guo’s on Articles and Activity of Human Rights
·rticles written by and about Guo Guoting and International Report links
·Index of Guo’s works and articles on advocating freedom, human rights, democracy
·A Mild Shanghai Lawyer and His Accidental Crusade
·郭国汀从最佳海事律师到人权律师 【人物】
***政治学研究
·政治的基本概念
·正义的学说
·正义的第一原则:政治权力的合法性
·正义概念的进化与发展
·人民反抗暴政的革命权利
·当代世界政治现状
·独裁专权(即威权)与独裁统治及极权暴政
·政治权力的限制与平衡原理
·政治文化与政治
·什么是政治形态
·民主法治及权力
·True meaning of the Republicanism
·Judicial Independence and Canadian Judges
·如何制约流氓暴君下屠杀令扑灭宪政民主大革命?
·关于成立临时或流亡政府我的原则与立场
·公平游戏规则公平竞争是第一价值原则
·中国民主运动要不要遵守公平游戏规则?
·中国民运长期四分五裂的根源何在?
·郭国汀:唯有程序正义才能根治中国民运四分五裂顽症
·民运内部必须是平等尊重基础上充分争论协商妥协式的真诚合作
·自私是否人的本性?
·暴君与暴政
·暴力革命与和平演变的前提与条件
·关于暴力革命答深山质疑
·勇敢地参政议政吧!中国律师们!/郭国汀
·语言风格——关于袁红冰改良还是革命的争论
·就袁红冰之《改良还是革命》与申先生的论战/郭国汀
·英雄人格哲学—袁红冰《自由在落日中》读后
·划时代的政论——简评袁红冰《改良,还是革命?》
·为什么袁红冰之《改良,还是革命?》是划时代的政论?
·再论政治案低调消音妥协辩护论的严重危害性
·再论政治案件低调消音妥协辩护论的危害性引起争论
·政治案辩护律师的最佳策略
·驳政治肮脏论
·文字狱与极权专制体制
·暴政与人种的优劣/新南郭
·虚伪是极权专制的必然付产品
·极权专制政体与思想家
·最暴虐无道的政府!/南郭
·郭国汀:歌功颂德或批评批判?
·判断一个政权合法性的公认标准
·判断政府合法性的普世公认标准 郭国汀
·中国律师理所应当关心政治 郭国汀
·政治体制的根本问题
·中国的前途在于专制改良还是政治民主革命?
·西方现代政治民主的基本要件
·郭国汀: 政府无权杀人!
·政府绝对无权武力镇压(屠杀)和平集会示威游行或罢工的公民
·国民有权推翻暴力镇压(屠杀)和平抗议民众的任何政府
·中国历史上不存在极权
·民主政治的终极目标是自由——答尼采黄昏君的质疑/南郭
·极权专制独裁者与知识分子
·与网友谈论民主政治与政权合法性
·政府不得滥杀和平请愿公民的最新国际公约
·中共极权专制暴政祸国殃民绝对乏善可陈
·郭律师评价中国律师诉讼及司法体制现状
***(40)宪政研究
·什么是宪政?
·什么是共和?
·宪政的实质
·分權制衡理論的历史淵源
·中国自由文化运动与宪政研究
·The Arguments For and Against the Notwithstanding Clause
·Freedom is not free but it is costly
·宪法改革的设想 南郭提要
·联邦共和民主宪政体制是美国经久强盛不衰的原因
·党化党控教育是中共祸国殃民的一大罪恶
·立宪时代的法政哲学思考提要
·有限政府与法治宪政
·联邦主义要旨
·It’s Not Patriotic to Violate the Constitution
·An Imperial Presidency Based on Constitutional Quicksand
·US Constitution revolution for real democracy
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联合国保护所有被以任何形式拘禁或关押人员的主要原则(1988)

联合国保护所有被以任何形式拘禁或关押人员的主要原则(1988)
   Body of Principles for the Protection of All Persons under Any Form of Detention or Imprisonment
   Adopted by General Assembly resolution 43/173 of 9 December 1988
   Scope of the Body of Principles
   These principles apply for the protection of all persons under any form of detention or imprisonment.

   Use of Terms
   For the purposes of the Body of Principles:
   (a) "Arrest" means the act of apprehending a person for the alleged commission of an offence or by the action of an authority;
   (b) "Detained person" means any person deprived of personal liberty except as a result of conviction for an offence;
   (c) "Imprisoned person" means any person deprived of personal liberty as a result of conviction for an offence;
   (d) "Detention" means the condition of detained persons as defined above;
   (e) "Imprisonment" means the condition of imprisoned persons as defined above;
   (f) The words "a judicial or other authority" means a judicial or other authority under the law whose status and tenure should afford the strongest possible guarantees of competence, impartiality and independence.
   Principle 1
   All persons under any form of detention or imprisonment shall be treated in a humane manner and with respect for the inherent dignity of the human person.
   Principle 2
   Arrest, detention or imprisonment shall only be carried out strictly in accordance with the provisions of the law and by competent officials or persons authorized for that purpose.
   Principle 3
   There shall be no restriction upon or derogation from any of the human rights of persons under any form of detention or imprisonment recognized or existing in any State pursuant to law, conventions, regulations or custom on the pretext that this Body of Principles does not recognize such rights or that it recognizes them to a lesser extent.
   Principle 4
   Any form of detention or imprisonment and all measures affecting the human rights of a person under any form of detention or imprisonment shall be ordered by, or be subject to the effective control of, a judicial or other authority.
   Principle 5
   1. These principles shall be applied to all persons within the territory of any given State, without distinction of any kind, such as race, colour, sex, language, religion or religious belief, political or other opinion, national, ethnic or social origin, property, birth or other status.
   2. Measures applied under the law and designed solely to protect the rights and special status of women, especially pregnant women and nursing mothers, children and juveniles, aged, sick or handicapped persons shall not be deemed to be discriminatory. The need for, and the application of, such measures shall always be subject to review by a judicial or other authority.
   Principle 6
   No person under any form of detention or imprisonment shall be subjected to torture or to cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment. No circumstance whatever may be invoked as a justification for torture or other cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment.
   Principle 7
   1. States should prohibit by law any act contrary to the rights and duties contained in these principles, make any such act subject to appropriate sanctions and conduct impartial investigations upon complaints.
   The term "cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment" should be interpreted so as to extend the widest possible protection against abuses, whether physical or mental, including the holding of a detained or imprisoned person in conditions which deprive him, temporarily or permanently. of the use of any of his natural senses, such as sight or hearing, or of his awareness of place and the passing of time.
   2. Officials who have reason to believe that a violation of this Body of Principles has occurred or is about to occur shall report the matter to their superior authorities and, where necessary, to other appropriate authorities or organs vested with reviewing or remedial powers.
   3. Any other person who has ground to believe that a violation of this Body of Principles has occurred or is about to occur shall have the right to report the matter to the superiors of the officials involved as well as to other appropriate authorities or organs vested with reviewing or remedial powers.
   Principle 8
   Persons in detention shall be subject to treatment appropriate to their unconvicted status. Accordingly, they shall, whenever possible, be kept separate from imprisoned persons.
   Principle 9
   The authorities which arrest a person, keep him under detention or investigate the case shall exercise only the powers granted to them under the law and the exercise of these powers shall be subject to recourse to a judicial or other authority.
   Principle 10
   Anyone who is arrested shall be informed at the time of his arrest of the reason for his arrest and shall be promptly informed of any charges against him.
   Principle 11
   1. A person shall not be kept in detention without being given an effective opportunity to be heard promptly by a judicial or other authority. A detained person shall have the right to defend himself or to be assisted by counsel as prescribed by law.
   2. A detained person and his counsel, if any, shall receive prompt and full communication of any order of detention, together with the reasons therefor.
   3. A judicial or other authority shall be empowered to review as appropriate the continuance of detention.
   Principle 12
   1. There shall be duly recorded:
   (a) The reasons for the arrest; (b) The time of the arrest and the taking of the arrested person to a place of custody as well as that of his first appearance before a judicial or other authority;
   (c) The identity of the law enforcement officials concerned;
   (d) Precise information concerning the place of custody.
   2. Such records shall be communicated to the detained person, or his counsel, if any, in the form prescribed by law.
   Principle 13
   Any person shall, at the moment of arrest and at the commencement of detention or imprisonment, or promptly thereafter, be provided by the authority responsible for his arrest, detention or imprisonment, respectively with information on and an explanation of his rights and how to avail himself of such rights.
   Principle 14
   A person who does not adequately understand or speak the language used by the authorities responsible for his arrest, detention or imprisonment is entitled to receive promptly in a language which he understands the information referred to in principle 10, principle 11, paragraph 2, principle 12, paragraph 1, and principle 13 and to have the assistance, free of charge, if necessary, of an interpreter in connection with legal proceedings subsequent to his arrest.
   Principle 15
   Notwithstanding the exceptions contained in principle 16, paragraph 4, and principle 18, paragraph 3, communication of the detained or imprisoned person with the outside world, and in particular his family or counsel, shall not be denied for more than a matter of days.
   Principle 16
   1. Promptly after arrest and after each transfer from one place of detention or imprisonment to another, a detained or imprisoned person shall be entitled to notify or to require the competent authority to notify members of his family or other appropriate persons of his choice of his arrest, detention or imprisonment or of the transfer and of the place where he is kept in custody.
   2. If a detained or imprisoned person is a foreigner, he shall also be promptly informed of his right to communicate by appropriate means with a consular post or the diplomatic mission of the State of which he is a national or which is otherwise entitled to receive such communication in accordance with international law or with the representative of the competent international organization, if he is a refugee or is otherwise under the protection of an intergovernmental organization.
   3. If a detained or imprisoned person is a juvenile or is incapable of understanding his entitlement, the competent authority shall on its own initiative undertake the notification referred to in the present principle. Special attention shall be given to notifying parents or guardians.

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