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郭国汀律师专栏
***(50)坎坷人权律师路
·郭国汀致中国律师网全体新老网友的公开函
·成为一名人权律师!---郭国汀律师专访
·令我热泪横流的小诗 郭国汀
·无知缺德者当权必然造成人为灾难--正视科学尊重科学
·我们要说真话-答红旗生的蛋 郭国汀
·出身论,成份论应当休矣!
·民族败类!你是否中国人?
·说句心里话
·孔子当然伟大.郭国汀
·时代不同了! 郭国汀
·可敬的国安公安或网警请自重!
·我们决不再沉默! 郭国汀
·秋池君倡议创立中共中国律师网上支部有感/南郭
·我有罪,我可以再作一次自我辩护吗?
·错兄你该醒醒了!
·给某北大高材生的公开函
·答"语文大师"之指责
·答错别字的终结者/南郭
·吾不同意你的观点,但捍卫阁下的自由表达权。错兄的贴还是应当保留
·答龙吟君/南郭
·答紫兄质疑/南郭
·答醉翁
·答迷风先生/南郭
·驳上海当局特务造谣抵毁郭国汀律师的谎言/南郭
·答紫兄质疑/南郭
·吾不同意你的观点,但坚决捍卫阁下的自由表达权。
·郭国汀:我向错兄致歉--同时为错兄说句公道话
·我的观点与立场--驳非法入侵
·郭国汀 汝吹牛!
·南郭不但会骂人而且必将把“乡愿,德之贼”型的小人骂得狗血喷头!
·纯属多余的担忧
·伟大的中华文明博大精深的中华文化---答孟庆强
·我看郭国汀律师
·剥放屁狗们的皮----公安国安网警与郑恩宠
·亦曰将无同,兼斥郭国汀、刘路之类,并向相关版主求教
·对内直不起腰者别指望其对外挺身而出
·南郭/对周树人的评价吾深以为然
·世上最美丽者莫过于大自然——人的本质、伟大
·令郭国汀律师老泪纵横的真情
·南郭:为当代中国人的幸福而努力奋斗
·心里话三步曲/郭国汀
·致刘路及中律网友们新春祝福/郭国汀
·驳上海当局特务造谣抵毁郭国汀律师的谎言/南郭
·我的声明与立场------南郭与中律网友们的对话
·语言与民族密不可分——奉旨答复小C:/南郭
·致刘路及中律网友们新春祝福/郭国汀
·学习方法与读书计划答小C网警同志/南郭
·英雄伟人与超人/郭国汀
·中共党奴的“学术”
·我倒宁可相信李洪东仅仅是因为无知/南郭
·愿王洪民先生的在天之灵安息!/郭国汀
·堂堂正正做个真正的中国人!/南郭
·中国律师朋友们幸福不会从天降!/北郭
·令我感动的赞美!/南郭
·谢谢网友们关注天易律师事务所的命运
·公开论战化敌为友——新年致词/新南郭
·中国涉外案件没有一起获得执行 郭国汀
·宣战演讲名篇
·中共外逃贪官大多是政治斗争牺牲品问 采访郭国汀
·就宗教论坛封郭国汀笔名事致小溪的公开信
***(51)国际人权法律与实务
(A)***国际人权公约(中英文本)
·国际人权法律资料 世界人权宣言
·国际人权法律资料 公民权利和政治权利国际公约
·国际人权法律资料 法国人权与公民权宣言[人权宣言]
·国际人权法律资料 美国独立宣言
·国际人权法律资料 经济 、社会 、文化权利国际公约
·国际人权法律资料 保护人人不受酷刑和其他残刑和其他残忍不人道或有辱人格待遇或处罚宣言
·禁止酷刑和其他残忍不人道或有辱人格的待遇或处罚公约
·联合国有关健康保健人员尤其是医护人员在保护和防止囚犯和被拘禁人员不受酷刑和其他残忍不人道或有辱人格待遇或处罚的医疗伦理原则(1982)
·国际人权法律资料 囚犯待遇最低限度标准规则
·国际人权法律资料 国际刑事法院罗马规约
·消除基于宗教或信仰原因的一切形式的不容忍和歧视宣言
·联合国囚犯最低标准待遇规则
·联合国囚犯待遇基本原则(1990年)
·联合国保护所有被以任何形式拘禁或关押人员的主要原则(1988)
·结社自由和组织权利保护公约
·联合国反腐败公约
·联合国发展权利宣言
·促进和保护普遍公认的人权和基本自由的权利和义务宣言
·中国已签国际人权公约联合国人员和有关人权安全公约
·联合国律师职责的基本原则
·联合国司法独立的基本原则(1985年)
·联合国检察官的职责准则
·世界人权公约英文版Universal Declaration of Human Rights
·犯罪及权力滥用受害者恢复正义基本原则
·国际刑事法院规约(1998)
·国际刑事法庭(芦旺达)程序与证据规则(1995)
·国际刑事法庭(芦旺达)规约
·起诉严重侵犯国际人道法责任人的国际(前南斯拉夫)法庭规约(1991)
·消除一切形式歧视妇女的国际公约1981
·国际人权法律资料 取缔教育歧视公约
·关于就业及职业歧视的公约
·消除一切形式歧视妇女的国际公约选择性议定书2000
·联合国防止和惩罚种族灭绝罪的公约(1951)
·联合国有关难民身份的国际公约1954
·儿童权利国际公约1990
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联合国律师职责的基本原则

联合国律师职责的基本原则(1990年)
   Basic Principles on the Role of Lawyers, Eighth United Nations Congress on the Prevention of Crime and the Treatment of Offenders, Havana, 27 August to 7 September 1990, U.N. Doc. A/CONF.144/28/Rev.1 at 118 (1990).
   
   Whereas in the Charter of the United Nations the peoples of the world affirm, inter alia, their determination to establish conditions under which justice can be maintained, and proclaim as one of their purposes the achievement of international cooperation in promoting and encouraging respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms without distinction as to race, sex, language or religion,
   Whereas the Universal Declaration of Human Rights enshrines the principles of equality before the law, the presumption of innocence, the right to a fair and public hearing by an independent and impartial tribunal, and all the guarantees necessary for the defence of everyone charged with a penal offence,
   Whereas the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights proclaims, in addition, the right to be tried without undue delay and the right to a fair and public hearing by a competent, independent and impartial tribunal established by law,
   Whereas the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights recalls the obligation of States under the Charter to promote universal respect for, and observance of, human rights and freedoms,
   Whereas the Body of Principles for the Protection of All Persons under Any Form of Detention or Imprisonment provides that a detained person shall be entitled to have the assistance of, and to communicate and consult with, legal counsel,
   Whereas the Standard Minimum Rules for the Treatment of Prisoners recommend, in particular, that legal assistance and confidential communication with counsel should be ensured to untried prisoners,
   Whereas the Safe guards guaranteeing protection of those facing the death penalty reaffirm the right of everyone suspected or charged with a crime for which capital punishment may be imposed to adequate legal assistance at all stages of the proceedings, in accordance with article 14 of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights,
   Whereas the Declaration of Basic Principles of Justice for Victims of Crime and Abuse of Power recommends measures to be taken at the international and national levels to improve access to justice and fair treatment, restitution, compensation and assistance for victims of crime,
   Whereas adequate protection of the human rights and fundamental freedoms to which all persons are entitled, be they economic, social and cultural, or civil and political, requires that all persons have effective access to legal services provided by an independent legal profession,
   Whereas professional associations of lawyers have a vital role to play in upholding professional standards and ethics, protecting their members from persecution and improper restrictions and infringements, providing legal services to all in need of them, and cooperating with governmental and other institutions in furthering the ends of justice and public interest,
   The Basic Principles on the Role of Lawyers, set forth below, which have been formulated to assist Member States in their task of promoting and ensuring the proper role of lawyers, should be respected and taken into account by Governments within the framework of their national legislation and practice and should be brought to the attention of lawyers as well as other persons, such as judges, prosecutors, members of the executive and the legislature, and the public in general. These principles shall also apply, as appropriate, to persons who exercise the functions of lawyers without having the formal status of lawyers.
   Access to lawyers and legal services
   1. All persons are entitled to call upon the assistance of a lawyer of their choice to protect and establish their rights and to defend them in all stages of criminal proceedings.
   2. Governments shall ensure that efficient procedures and responsive mechanisms for effective and equal access to lawyers are provided for all persons within their territory and subject to their jurisdiction, without distinction of any kind, such as discrimination based on race, colour, ethnic origin, sex, language, religion, political or other opinion, national or social origin, property, birth, economic or other status.
   3. Governments shall ensure the provision of sufficient funding and other resources for legal services to the poor and, as necessary, to other disadvantaged persons. Professional associations of lawyers shall cooperate in the organization and provision of services, facilities and other resources.
   4. Governments and professional associations of lawyers shall promote programmes to inform the public about their rights and duties under the law and the important role of lawyers in protecting their fundamental freedoms. Special attention should be given to assisting the poor and other disadvantaged persons so as to enable them to assert their rights and where necessary call upon the assistance of lawyers.
   Special safeguards in criminal justice matters
   5. Governments shall ensure that all persons are immediately informed by the competent authority of their right to be assisted by a lawyer of their own choice upon arrest or detention or when charged with a criminal offence.
   6. Any such persons who do not have a lawyer shall, in all cases in which the interests of justice so require, be entitled to have a lawyer of experience and competence commensurate with the nature of the offence assigned to them in order to provide effective legal assistance, without payment by them if they lack sufficient means to pay for such services.
   7. Governments shall further ensure that all persons arrested or detained, with or without criminal charge, shall have prompt access to a lawyer, and in any case not later than forty-eight hours from the time of arrest or detention.
   8. All arrested, detained or imprisoned persons shall be provided with adequate opportunities, time and facilities to be visited by and to communicate and consult with a lawyer, without delay, interception or censorship and in full confidentiality. Such consultations may be within sight, but not within the hearing, of law enforcement officials.
   Qualifications and training
   9. Governments, professional associations of lawyers and educational institutions shall ensure that lawyers have appropriate education and training and be made aware of the ideals and ethical duties of the lawyer and of human rights and fundamental freedoms recognized by national and international law.
   10. Governments, professional associations of lawyers and educational institutions shall ensure that there is no discrimination against a person with respect to entry into or continued practice within the legal profession on the grounds of race, colour, sex, ethnic origin, religion, political or other opinion, national or social origin, property, birth, economic or other status, except that a requirement, that a lawyer must be a national of the country concerned, shall not be considered discriminatory.
   11. In countries where there exist groups, communities or regions whose needs for legal services are not met, particularly where such groups have distinct cultures, traditions or languages or have been the victims of past discrimination, Governments, professional associations of lawyers and educational institutions should take special measures to provide opportunities for candidates from these groups to enter the legal profession and should ensure that they receive training appropriate to the needs of their groups. Duties and responsibilities
   12. Lawyers shall at all times maintain the honour and dignity of their profession as essential agents of the administration of justice.
   13. The duties of lawyers towards their clients shall include:
   (a) Advising clients as to their legal rights and obligations, and as to the working of the legal system in so far as it is relevant to the legal rights and obligations of the clients;

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