宗教信仰

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谢选骏文集
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假晶现象

   《平定主权国家》
   Pacification of nation-states
   
   谢选骏
   

   
   第二章 教族:种姓制度还是礼制?
   Chapter Two Religious grouping: Caste vs.Etiquette
   
   一,假晶现象
   1. The pseudomorph
   
   所谓假晶现象也叫“换质矿物”或“假象矿物”(即“pseudomorph”),指岩石经由换质作用形成的矿物。其特征是A种矿物的晶体被B种矿物所取代,此次生矿物(B)仍保有原生矿物(A)之结晶外形,形成一个由B取代 A之假晶。例如,玄武岩受到蚀变作用,其所含的橄榄石被绿泥石所取代,形成一个绿泥石取代橄榄石的假晶(a pseudomorph of chlorite after olivine)。  假象矿物形成过程即是一种换质作用,而换质作用是变质作用(Metamorphism)的一种,因流体的作用,使发生变质的岩石和外界有成分元素上的交换。
   
   简单说,假晶现象作为地质学概念,原指一种岩石的成分注入它种岩石的缝隙和空洞中,以致造成了一种混生的“假晶”,即貌似甲种的岩石,实际包裹的却是乙岩石;引申到人文领域,文明上的假晶现象是指渊源于不同民族的精神及其文化样式之间的杂交变形,一种形式掩盖了另一种内容。一个社会的精神活动,会诉诸特适其自我表现的形式,从而在历史中创生了一种“文明的样式”:艺术的样式、哲学的样式、宗教的或科学的样式,从此呈现出各种世俗生活或神圣生活的波澜壮阔但内在一致的苍茫景观。一种文明的精神生活,借助于他种文明的表现形式而展示开来──这,就是文化哲学意义上的“假晶现象”。例如,中国历史上高度发达的佛教文化,就是借助外来文化的模式、语言、服装,来寄托了本民族的精神生活。伊期为主的什叶派伊斯兰教文化,也借用了阿拉伯文化即逊尼派伊斯兰教的外观,注入本民族的精神。
   
   假晶现象可谓是功过参半。在特定的历史气候下,历史上极富活力的文化,常和假晶现象结下了缘份。而一种文化的光辉,常受益于他种文化的前来“交汇”。“交汇”与“交流”不同,它不是表层的、枝节上的交通互补,而是两种文化在精神气质和内在结构上的交媾,是一种全身心的汇合。而常常,如果外来文化过于强大,本地文化就被迫一时接受外来文化的外观,形成假晶现象。

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