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郭国汀律师专栏
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·美国1862年解放黑奴宣言
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(C)***英国人权法律文件
·英国1998年人权法案
·英国1676年人身保护令
·英国1689年权利法案
·英国1628年权利请愿书
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***(52)郭国汀论法官与律师
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·尊敬的法官大人你值得尊敬吗?!
·郭国汀与中国律师网友论法官
·法官的良心与良知/南郭
·法官!这是我法律生涯的终极目标! 郭国汀
·律师与法官之间究竟应如何摆正关系?
·从 “中国律师人”说开去
·唯有科班出身者才能当律师?!答王靓华高论/南郭
·律师的责任——再答李洪东/南郭
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·我为北京16位律师喝彩!郭国汀
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·第五次强烈抗议中国律师网无理非法封杀郭律师的IP
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·最受欢迎的写手却被中共彻底封杀
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·强烈挽留郭国汀律师/小C
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·答时代精英,
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***(53)大学生\知识分子与爱国愤青研究
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·论当代中国大学生和爱国愤青的未来
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***(54)《郭国汀妙语妙言》郭国汀著
***随笔\散文
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·人的本质
·圣诞感言
·宽容
·友情
·批评
·物以类聚,人以群分
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·
·特务
·民运人士需要静心学习思考充实提高自已的理论休养
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· 真理是客观的永恒的不以任何人的主观意志为转移
·马虎学风要不得
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中国是国际网络表达自由的头号敌人

中国是国际网络表达自由的头号敌人
   欧洲议会于七月六日通过一项决议将中国列为国际互联网表达自由的头号敌人;同时谴责Yahoo, Google and Microsoft助肘为虐。 “a number of countries can be seen as enemies of freedom of expression on-line as stated in the last Reporters Without Borders report, including China, Belarus, Burma, Cuba, Iran, Libya, Maldives, Nepal, North Korea, Uzbekistan, Saudi Arabia, Syria, Tunisia, Turkmenistan and Vietnam. ” “whereas Chinese government has successfully persuaded companies such as Yahoo, Google and Microsoft to facilitate the censorship of their services in the Chinese internet market;”
   Texts adopted by Parliament
   
   Thursday 6 July 2006 - Strasbourg Provisional edition
   Freedom of expression on the Internet P6_TA-PROV(2006)0324 B6-0401, 0402,
   0404, 0408, 0411 and 0414/2006
   
   European Parliament resolution on freedom of expression on the Internet
   The European Parliament ,
   - having regard to its previous annual resolutions on the situation of
   human rights in the world,
   - having regard to its previous resolutions on human rights and freedom of
   the press and on the evaluation of the World Summit on the Information
   Society held in Tunisia in December 2005,
   - having regard to Article 19 of the Universal Declaration of Human
   Rights,
   - having regard to Article 10 of the European Convention on Human Rights,
   - having regard to the EU Guidelines on Human Rights Dialogue (2001) and
   on Human Rights Defenders (2004) and their first evaluation under Austrian
   Presidency,
   - having regard to the Declaration of Principles adopted by the World
   Summit on the Information Society on 12 December 2003
   - having regard to the Joint Declaration of 21 December 2005 by the UN
   Special Rapporteur on Freedom of Opinion and Expression, the OSCE
   Representative on Freedom of the Media and the OAS Special Rapporteur on
   Freedom of Expression,
   - having regards to the EU policy on human rights and democratisation in
   third countries adopted by the Council in December 2005,
   - having regard to the European Initiative for Democracy and Human Rights
   (EIDHR),
   - having regard to Rule 115 of its Rules of Procedure,
   A. whereas Article 19 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights states
   that everyone has the right to freedom of opinion and expression; this right
   includes freedom to hold opinions without interference and to seek, receive
   and impart information and ideas through any media and regardless of
   frontiers;
   B. welcoming the statement of the World Summit in Tunis of 16-18 November
   2005 on the primary importance of the information society for democracy and
   respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms; in particular the freedom
   of expression and opinion, as well as the freedom to receive and access
   information;
   C. whereas the fight for freedom of expression has today largely shifted
   on-line as the Internet has become a mean of expression of choice for
   political dissidents, democracy activists, human rights defenders and
   independent journalists worldwide;
   D. whereas access to the Internet can strengthen democracy and contribute
   to a country's economic and social development and restricting such access
   is incompatible with the right to freedom of expression;
   E. whereas restrictions should only exist in cases of using the Internet
   for illegal activities, such as incitement to hatred, violence and racism,
   totalitarian propaganda and children's access to pornography or their sexual
   exploitation;
   F. whereas, according to Reporters Without Borders, authoritarian regimes
   and governments have been working on ever more far-reaching methods of
   controlling the Internet, chiefly using more and more sophisticated
   filtering technology and surveillance of electronic communications and
   setting-up cyber-police;
   G. whereas, according to human rights organisations, a large number of
   cyber-dissidents are detained in prison - most of them in China - including
   Hao Wu, Chinese blogger and documentary filmmaker, Yang Zili, Chinese
   cyber-dissident, Shi Tao, Chinese journalist at the daily Dangdai Shangbao,
   Motjaba Saminejad, Iranian blogger, Mohammed Abbou, Tunisian lawyer, Pham
   Hong Son, Vietnamese doctor and Habib Saleh, Syrian online journalist;
   whereas the most recent cases concern the Egyptian bloggers Mohamed Sharkawy
   and Karim Lel-shaer;
   H. whereas a number of countries can be seen as enemies of freedom of
   expression on-line as stated in the last Reporters Without Borders report,
   including China, Belarus, Burma, Cuba, Iran, Libya, Maldives, Nepal, North
   Korea, Uzbekistan, Saudi Arabia, Syria, Tunisia, Turkmenistan and Vietnam.
   I. whereas companies based in democratic States partly provide these
   countries the means to censor the web and to monitor electronic
   communication;
   J. whereas Chinese government has successfully persuaded companies such as
   Yahoo, Google and Microsoft to facilitate the censorship of their services
   in the Chinese internet market; also notes that other governments have
   required the means for censorship from other companies;
   K. whereas equipment and technologies supplied by Western companies such
   as CISCO Systems, Telecom Italia, Wanadoo, a subsidiary of France Telecom
   have been used by governments for the purpose of censoring the Internet
   preventing freedom of expression;
   L. whereas US legislators introduced a bill in February 2006, the Global
   On-line Freedom Act, aimed at regulating the activities of Internet
   businesses when they operate in repressive countries;
   M. whereas the EU should demonstrate that the rights of Internet users are
   at the heart of its concerns and that it is ready to act to promote free
   speech on-line;
   1. Reaffirms the fact that freedom of expression is a key value shared by
   all EU countries and that they have to take concrete steps to defend it;
   2. Calls, in this respect, on the Council and the EU Member States to agree
   on a joint statement confirming their commitment in favour of the protection
   of the rights of internet users and of the promotion of free expression on
   the internet world-wide;
   3. Reiterates its commitment to the principles which were confirmed at the
   Tunis Summit, viz.:
    - building the information society on the basis of human rights and
   fundamental freedoms,
    - combating the digital divide and seeking resources for action plans to
   foster development,
    - developing Internet governance arrangements which are more balanced,
   pluralist and representative of the States involved, to meet the new
   technological challenges (spamming, data protection, etc.);
   4. Strongly condemns restrictions on Internet content, whether they apply
   to the dissemination or to the receipt of information, that are imposed by
   Governments and are not in strict conformity with the guarantee of freedom
   of expression; strongly condemns the harassment and imprisonment of
   journalists and others who are expressing their opinions on the Internet;
   calls, in this respect, on the Council and the Commission to take all
   necessary measures vis-à-vis the authorities of the concerned countries for
   the immediate release of all detained Internet users;
   5. Calls on the Commission and the Council to draw up a voluntary code of
   conduct that would put limits on the activities of companies in repressive
   countries;
   6. Calls on the Commission and the Council to maintain the presence and
   active participation of the EU and the presentation of common positions
   especially with ECOSOC, ITU, UNESCO and UNDP;
   7. Calls on the Council and the Commission when considering its assistance
   programmes to third countries to take into account the need for unrestricted
   Internet access by their citizens;
   8. Welcomes the Joint Investor Statement on Freedom of Expression and the
   Internet at the initiative of Reporters Without Borders; stresses that
   corporations which provide Internet searching, chat, publishing or other
   services should have a responsibility to ensure that the rights of users are
   respected;
   9. Instructs its President to forward this resolution to the Council, the
   Commission, and the governments and parliaments of the Member States

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